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Article

Distribution, Formation and Human Health Risk of Fluorine in Groundwater in Songnen Plain, NE China

1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fausto Grassa
Water 2021, 13(22), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223236
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 4 November 2021 / Accepted: 6 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Ecological Restoration and Groundwater Artificial Recharge)
Songnen Plain is one of the three great plains in northeast China with abundant groundwater resources. The continuous population growth and the rapid development of agriculture and economy in China has caused a series of environmental problems in the plain, such as endemic diseases caused by the accumulation of harmful substances in drinking water. This paper conducts a systematic investigation of fluorine in the groundwater of Songnen Plain. The results showed that fluorine was widespread in the groundwater of the plain in the concentration range of BDL–8.54 mg·L−1, at a mean value of 0.63 mg·L−1 and detectable at a rate of 85.91%. The highest concentrations of fluorine were found in central and southwest areas of the plain. The concentration exceeded the guideline values for fluorine in drinking water and may have varying degrees of adverse effects on adults, and especially children, in the study area. The fluorine in groundwater mainly came from the dissolution of fluorite and other fluorine-containing minerals, and the concentrations and distribution of fluorine were affected by cation exchange, groundwater flow field and hydrochemical indexes (pH, TDS and HCO3). The study provides scientific basis for the investigation, evaluation and prevention of endemic diseases caused by fluorine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Songnen Plain; groundwater; fluorine; distribution; formation; human health risk Songnen Plain; groundwater; fluorine; distribution; formation; human health risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Liu, H.; Cao, X.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y. Distribution, Formation and Human Health Risk of Fluorine in Groundwater in Songnen Plain, NE China. Water 2021, 13, 3236. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223236

AMA Style

Wang J, Zheng N, Liu H, Cao X, Teng Y, Zhai Y. Distribution, Formation and Human Health Risk of Fluorine in Groundwater in Songnen Plain, NE China. Water. 2021; 13(22):3236. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jianwei, Nengzhan Zheng, Hong Liu, Xinyi Cao, Yanguo Teng, and Yuanzheng Zhai. 2021. "Distribution, Formation and Human Health Risk of Fluorine in Groundwater in Songnen Plain, NE China" Water 13, no. 22: 3236. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223236

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