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Article

Validation of an In-Situ Observation Method for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Paddy Fields: A Case Study of a Beijing Paddy Field

Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Hydrological Cycle and Sponge City Technology, College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Academic Editor: Hongguang Cheng
Water 2021, 13(22), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223235
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response Mechanism of Non-point Source Nitrogen Output in Farmland)
A Beijing paddy field, along with in-situ experiments, was used to validate and refine the in-situ observation (IO) method to describe nonpoint source pollution (NPS) in paddy fields. Based on synchronous observed rainfall, water depth, and water quality data at two locations (1# (near inlet) and 2# (near outlet)) with large elevation differences, the evapotranspiration and infiltration loss (ET+F), runoff depth and NPS pollution load were calculated according to IO, and a common method was used to calculate ET+F. Then, the results of the different methods and locations were compared and analyzed. The results showed that 1# observation point was located at a lower position compared with 2# observation point. According to 1# observation point, there were 5 days of dry field in the drying period, which was consistent with the actual drying period, and there was a dry period of 9 days based on 2# observation point. The ET+F estimated by IO fit well with the calculated values. In the experiment, 6 overflows and 1 drainage event were identified from the observed data at locations 1# and 2#. The relative deviation of the NPS pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) was between 0.6% and 2.0%. The water level gauge location had little influence on IO but mostly affected the water depth observations during the field drying period. The mareographs should be installed in low-lying paddy field areas to monitor water depth variation throughout the whole rice-growing season. View Full-Text
Keywords: paddy field; rainfall; runoff; non-point source pollution; in-situ method paddy field; rainfall; runoff; non-point source pollution; in-situ method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, Y.; He, J.; Su, B.; Dou, J.; Xu, Y.; Li, L. Validation of an In-Situ Observation Method for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Paddy Fields: A Case Study of a Beijing Paddy Field. Water 2021, 13, 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223235

AMA Style

Liao Y, He J, Su B, Dou J, Xu Y, Li L. Validation of an In-Situ Observation Method for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Paddy Fields: A Case Study of a Beijing Paddy Field. Water. 2021; 13(22):3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liao, Ya, Jingyi He, Baolin Su, Junfeng Dou, Yunqiang Xu, and Lifen Li. 2021. "Validation of an In-Situ Observation Method for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Paddy Fields: A Case Study of a Beijing Paddy Field" Water 13, no. 22: 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223235

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