Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Precipitation Characteristics on the Washout of Pollutants Based on the Example of an Urban Catchment in Kielce
Previous Article in Journal
Reductive and Oxidative UV Degradation of PFAS—Status, Needs and Future Perspectives
Article

Decoupling the Monitoring of Solar Water Heaters and their Usage Profiles

Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos and Winnie Gerbens-Leenes
Water 2021, 13(22), 3186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223186
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 17 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water-Energy Nexus)
South Africa is the most technologically advanced nation in Africa. However, the country is plagued with constant load shedding. The country receives about 2500 sunshine hours annually, with daily average irradiation levels of 4.5–6.5 kWh/m2. Despite these potentials, the use of electricity for domestic water heating is still prevalent in the country. The mass rollout of solar water heating (SWH) technologies in the low-cost housing sector across the country were met with massive failures. This study aims to assess the energy yield of a passive flat plate and an evacuated tube solar water heating system by evaluating the performance of these systems to address the energy crisis in South Africa. The flat plate (FP) and evacuated tube (ET) solar water heating systems were monitored for four days, characterised by varying sky conditions through instantaneous data measurement at 5 s. The parameters measured were water temperature, ambient temperature, irradiance at the plane of array, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. The results obtained show that a maximum irradiance of 1050 W/m2 was obtained on a clear day and corresponded to a hot water temperature of about 58 °C and 65 °C for the FP and ET, respectively. However, a cloudy day with a maximum irradiance of 400 W/m2 produced about 22 °C and 29 °C of hot water for the FP and ET, respectively. The results obtained in this study will guide stakeholders in the renewable energy sector towards employing SWH systems to replace or augment the electric geyser. Solar water heaters (SWH) can be used in the low-cost housing sector to provide hot water. Hence, the assessments in this study offer essential information for the deployment of these systems to reduce demand on the ailing South African electricity utility, Eskom, and mitigate climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: performance monitoring; solar water heater; evacuated tube collector; flat plate collector; solar radiation; South Africa performance monitoring; solar water heater; evacuated tube collector; flat plate collector; solar radiation; South Africa
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nwodo, J.C.; Overen, O.K.; Meyer, E.L. Decoupling the Monitoring of Solar Water Heaters and their Usage Profiles. Water 2021, 13, 3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223186

AMA Style

Nwodo JC, Overen OK, Meyer EL. Decoupling the Monitoring of Solar Water Heaters and their Usage Profiles. Water. 2021; 13(22):3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nwodo, Julian C., Ochuko K. Overen, and Edson L. Meyer. 2021. "Decoupling the Monitoring of Solar Water Heaters and their Usage Profiles" Water 13, no. 22: 3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223186

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop