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Article

Observation and Analysis of Water Temperature in Ice-Covered Shallow Lake: Case Study in Qinghuahu Lake

Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carl L Amos
Water 2021, 13(21), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213139
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 26 October 2021 / Accepted: 27 October 2021 / Published: 8 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Water temperature serves as a key environmental factor of lakes and the most basic parameter for analyzing the thermal conditions of a water body. Based on the observation and analysis of the water temperature of Qinghuahu Lake in the Heilongjiang Province of China, this paper analyzed the variation trend of the heat flux, effective thermal diffusivity of the icebound water, and revealed the temporal and spatial variation law of the water temperature and the transfer law beneath the ice on a shallow lake in a cold region. The results suggested a noticeable difference existing in the distribution of water temperature beneath the ice during different periods of ice coverage. During the third period, the water temperature vertically comprised three discrete layers, each of which remained unchanged in thickness despite the alternation of day and night. Sediment–water heat flux and water–ice heat flux both remained positive values throughout the freezing duration, averaging about 3.8–4.1 W/m2 and 9.8–10.3 W/m2, respectively. The calculated thermal diffusivity in late winter was larger than molecular, and the time-averaged values increased first and then decreased with water depth, reaching a maximum at a relative depth of 0.5. This research is expected to provide a reference for studies on the water environment of icebound shallow lakes or ponds in cold regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow lake; ice cover; water temperature; thermal stratification; heat flux; effective thermal diffusivity shallow lake; ice cover; water temperature; thermal stratification; heat flux; effective thermal diffusivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, F.; Mao, Z. Observation and Analysis of Water Temperature in Ice-Covered Shallow Lake: Case Study in Qinghuahu Lake. Water 2021, 13, 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213139

AMA Style

Ding F, Mao Z. Observation and Analysis of Water Temperature in Ice-Covered Shallow Lake: Case Study in Qinghuahu Lake. Water. 2021; 13(21):3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Falong, and Zeyu Mao. 2021. "Observation and Analysis of Water Temperature in Ice-Covered Shallow Lake: Case Study in Qinghuahu Lake" Water 13, no. 21: 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213139

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