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Article

Numerical Canal Seepage Loss Evaluation for Different Lining and Crack Techniques in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Case Study of the River Nile, Egypt

1
Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 04001 Kosice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Iglesias
Water 2021, 13(21), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213135
Received: 2 October 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 3 November 2021 / Published: 7 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
Owing to the potential negative impacts of climatic changes and the grand Ethiopian renaissance dam, water scarcity has become an urgent issue. Therefore, the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation has started a national project of the lining and rehabilitation of canals, to reduce seepage losses and for efficient water resource management. This study presents a new approach for assessing three different lining and crack techniques for the Ismailia canal, the largest end of the river Nile, Egypt. A 2-D steady state seep/w numerical model was developed for the Ismailia canal section, in the stretch at 28.00–49.00 km. The amount of seepage was significantly dependent on the hydraulic characteristics of the liner material. The extraction from aquifers via wells also had a considerable impact on the seepage rate from the unlined canals; however, a lesser effect was present in the case of lined canals. The concrete liner revealed the highest efficiency, followed by the geomembrane liner, and then the bentonite liner; with almost 99%, 96%, and 54%, respectively, without extraction, and decreasing by 4% for bentonite and geomembrane liners during extraction; however, the concrete lining efficiency did not change considerably. Nevertheless, the efficiency dramatically decreased to 25%, regardless of the lining technique, in the case of deterioration of the liner material. The double effect of both deterioration of the liner material and extraction from the aquifer showed a 16% efficiency, irrespective of the utilized lining technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ismailia canal; seep/w; seepage; losses; extraction; lining; cracks Ismailia canal; seep/w; seepage; losses; extraction; lining; cracks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elkamhawy, E.; Zelenakova, M.; Abd-Elaty, I. Numerical Canal Seepage Loss Evaluation for Different Lining and Crack Techniques in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Case Study of the River Nile, Egypt. Water 2021, 13, 3135. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213135

AMA Style

Elkamhawy E, Zelenakova M, Abd-Elaty I. Numerical Canal Seepage Loss Evaluation for Different Lining and Crack Techniques in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Case Study of the River Nile, Egypt. Water. 2021; 13(21):3135. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213135

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elkamhawy, Elsayed, Martina Zelenakova, and Ismail Abd-Elaty. 2021. "Numerical Canal Seepage Loss Evaluation for Different Lining and Crack Techniques in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Case Study of the River Nile, Egypt" Water 13, no. 21: 3135. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213135

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