This paper aims to develop a stochastic model (SM_EID_IOT) for estimating the inundation depths and associated 95% confidence intervals at the specific locations of the roadside water-level gauges, i.e., Internet of Things (IoT) sensors under the observed water levels/rainfalls and the precipitation forecasts given. The proposed SM_EID_IOT model is an ANN-derived one, a modified artificial neural network model (i.e., the ANN_GA-SA_MTF) in which the associated ANN weights are calibrated via a modified genetic algorithm with a variety of transfer functions considered. To enhance the reliability and accuracy of the proposed SM_EID_IOT model in the estimations of the inundation depths at the IoT sensors, a great number of the rainfall induced flood events as the training and validation datasets are simulated by the 2D hydraulic dynamic (SOBEK) model with the simulated rain fields via the stochastic generation model for the short-term gridded rainstorms. According to the results of model demonstration, Nankon catchment, located in northern Taiwan, the proposed SM_EID_IOT model can estimate the inundation depths at the various lead times with high reliability in capturing the validation datasets. Moreover, through the integrated real-time error correction method integrated with the proposed SM_EID_IOT model, the resulting corrected inundation-depth estimates exhibit a good agreement with the validated ones in time under an acceptable bias.
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