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Article

Multivariate Statistical and Hydrochemical Analysis of Drinking Water Resources in Northern Cameroon Watersheds

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Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Microbiology, Venda University, Thohoyando 1950, South Africa
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Environmental Research Foundation, Westville 3630, South Africa
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Department of Mathematics, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Local Materials Promotion Authority, MINRESI, P.O. Box 2396 Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 067 Dschang, Cameroon
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alfred Paul Blaschke and Lucila Candela
Water 2021, 13(21), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213055
Received: 25 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 24 October 2021 / Published: 1 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Watershed pollution by natural and anthropogenic activities remains a global challenge that requires careful and prompt attention. So, identifying possible pollution sources and studying the hydrochemistry of water resources would positively affect human health, especially in resource-limited communities and their economy. Water samples were collected during the rainy season in the North (R-NO) and Adamawa (R-AD) Region communities of Cameroon and assessed for physicochemical parameters using standard methods. The data were analysed using multivariate statistical and hydrochemical methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) retained seven and six principal components explaining 77.65% (R-NO) and 72.24% (R-AD) of the total variance, respectively. The drinking water sources assessed were highly, moderately, and lightly contaminated with turbidity, PO43−, Al3+, Fe2+, Mn2+, NH4+, NO3, NO2, and electrical conductivity (EC) from surface runoff and soil erosion sources. PCA and factor analysis (PCA/FA) revealed two main groups, distinguished by natural and anthropogenic sources, responsible for water quality variations. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) grouped sampling sites into three clusters: low, moderate, and high pollution areas in the R-NO and unpolluted, low, and moderate pollution areas in the R-AD. The order of dominant cations was Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and HCO3 > Cl > SO42− for anions. Based on Piper diagram classification, watersheds studied were predominated by the Mg-Ca-HCO3 water type in 85% (R-NO) and 79% (R-AD) of water samples. The chemical composition of shallow and deep water was dominantly controlled by the dissolution of silicates and carbonate, reverse ion exchange, and precipitation of calcite. These results reveal that diffuse pollution predominantly impacted the study sites during the rainy season, and this should be the focus of policymakers when planning and implementing measures to protect drinking water sources, human health, and reduce water treatment costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water quality; northern Cameroon watersheds; diffuse pollution; multivariate analysis; hydrochemical methods; silicates dissolution drinking water quality; northern Cameroon watersheds; diffuse pollution; multivariate analysis; hydrochemical methods; silicates dissolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dammi Djimi, E.G.; Abia, A.L.K.; Belibi Belibi, P.D.; Takam Soh, P.; Che, R.N.; Ghogomu, J.N.; Ketcha, J.M. Multivariate Statistical and Hydrochemical Analysis of Drinking Water Resources in Northern Cameroon Watersheds. Water 2021, 13, 3055. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213055

AMA Style

Dammi Djimi EG, Abia ALK, Belibi Belibi PD, Takam Soh P, Che RN, Ghogomu JN, Ketcha JM. Multivariate Statistical and Hydrochemical Analysis of Drinking Water Resources in Northern Cameroon Watersheds. Water. 2021; 13(21):3055. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dammi Djimi, Estelle Gaëlle, Akebe Luther King Abia, Placide Désiré Belibi Belibi, Patrice Takam Soh, Randy Nanga Che, Julius Numbonui Ghogomu, and Joseph Mbadcam Ketcha. 2021. "Multivariate Statistical and Hydrochemical Analysis of Drinking Water Resources in Northern Cameroon Watersheds" Water 13, no. 21: 3055. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213055

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