Next Article in Journal
Parsimonious Models of Precipitation Phase Derived from Random Forest Knowledge: Intercomparing Logistic Models, Neural Networks, and Random Forest Models
Next Article in Special Issue
Correction: Feria-Díaz et al. Recent Desalination Technologies by Hybridization and Integration with Reverse Osmosis: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 1369
Previous Article in Journal
Differences in the Proportional Contributions of Particulate Radiocesium Sources under Base- and High-Flow River Conditions: A Case Study in the Central Region of Fukushima
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Desalination Technologies by Hybridization and Integration with Reverse Osmosis: A Review
 
 
Article

Comparison of Desalination Technologies Using Renewable Energy Sources with Life Cycle, PESTLE, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses

1
Environmental and Process Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Process Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
2
SuPER (Sustainable Process Engineering Research) Team, Polytechnic University of Milan, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Field and Muhammad Wakil Shahzad
Water 2021, 13(21), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213023
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 10 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
Nowadays, desalination continues to expand globally, which is one of the most effective solutions to solve the problem of the global drinking water shortage. However, desalination is not a fail-safe process and has many environmental and human health consequences. This paper investigated the desalination procedure of seawater with different technologies, namely, multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED), and reverse osmosis (RO), and with various energy sources (fossil energy, solar energy, wind energy, nuclear energy). The aim was to examine the different desalination technologies’ effectiveness with energy sources using three assessment methods, which were examined separately. The life cycle assessment (LCA), PESTLE, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods were used to evaluate each procedure. LCA was based on the following impact analysis and evaluation methods: ReCiPe 2016, IMPACT 2002+, and IPCC 2013 GWP 100a; PESTLE risk analysis evaluated the long-lasting impact on processes and technologies with political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors. Additionally, MCDA was based on the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to evaluate desalination technologies. This study considered the operational phase of a plant, which includes the necessary energy and chemical needs, which is called “gate-to-gate” analysis. Saudi Arabia data were used for the analysis, with the base unit of 1 m3 of the water product. As the result of this study, RO combined with renewable energy provided outstanding benefits in terms of human health, ecosystem quality, and resources, as well as the climate change and emissions of GHGs categories. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; PESTLE analysis; multi-criteria decision analyses; desalination; reverse osmosis; multi-stage flash distillation; multi-effect distillation life cycle assessment; PESTLE analysis; multi-criteria decision analyses; desalination; reverse osmosis; multi-stage flash distillation; multi-effect distillation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Do Thi, H.T.; Pasztor, T.; Fozer, D.; Manenti, F.; Toth, A.J. Comparison of Desalination Technologies Using Renewable Energy Sources with Life Cycle, PESTLE, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses. Water 2021, 13, 3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213023

AMA Style

Do Thi HT, Pasztor T, Fozer D, Manenti F, Toth AJ. Comparison of Desalination Technologies Using Renewable Energy Sources with Life Cycle, PESTLE, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses. Water. 2021; 13(21):3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Do Thi, Huyen Trang, Tibor Pasztor, Daniel Fozer, Flavio Manenti, and Andras Jozsef Toth. 2021. "Comparison of Desalination Technologies Using Renewable Energy Sources with Life Cycle, PESTLE, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses" Water 13, no. 21: 3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213023

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop