Next Article in Journal
Do Water Bodies Show Better Ecological Status in Natura 2000 Protected Areas Than Non-Protected Ones?—The Case of Greece
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimizing Center Pivot Irrigation to Regulate Field Microclimate and Wheat Physiology under Dry-Hot Wind Conditions in the North China Plain
Previous Article in Journal
Modelling Bathing Water Quality Using Official Monitoring Data
 
 
Article

Modelling of Water Drop Movement and Distribution in No Wind and Windy Conditions for Different Nozzle Sizes

1
High-Tech Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment and Intelligence of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Research Centre of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Koforidua Technical University, P.O. Box 191, Koforidua 03420, Ghana
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pilar Montesinos
Water 2021, 13(21), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213006
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 9 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sprinkler Irrigation Systems and Water Saving)
A numerical model was developed to determine the water drop movement and mean droplet size diameter at any distance from a sprinkler as a function of nozzle size and pressure. Droplet size data from 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm nozzle sizes verified the model. Data for model prediction were generated throughout lab experiments. The results demonstrated that the correlation between the observed and predicted droplet size diameter values for all the nozzle sizes and pressures is quite good. Nozzle size and pressure had a major influence on droplet size. Higher pressure produced smaller droplets over the entire application profile. The wetted distance downwind from the sprinkler increased as wind velocity increased, for example at a constant working pressure of 300 kPa, at wind speeds of 3.5 m/s and 4.5 m/s, 20% and 32% of the total volume exceeded the wet radius respectively. Larger droplets (3.9–4.5 mm), accounting for 3.6% and 6.3% of the total number of distributed droplets, respectively. The model can also predict the droplet size distribution at any wind direction overall the irrigated pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: sprinkler irrigation; nozzle size; droplet size; modeling sprinkler irrigation; nozzle size; droplet size; modeling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.; Lewballah, J.K.; Fordjour, A.; Jiang, X.; Liu, J.; Ofosu, S.A.; Dwomoh, F.A. Modelling of Water Drop Movement and Distribution in No Wind and Windy Conditions for Different Nozzle Sizes. Water 2021, 13, 3006. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213006

AMA Style

Zhu X, Lewballah JK, Fordjour A, Jiang X, Liu J, Ofosu SA, Dwomoh FA. Modelling of Water Drop Movement and Distribution in No Wind and Windy Conditions for Different Nozzle Sizes. Water. 2021; 13(21):3006. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Xingye, Joseph Kwame Lewballah, Alexander Fordjour, Xiaoping Jiang, Junping Liu, Samuel Anim Ofosu, and Frank Agyen Dwomoh. 2021. "Modelling of Water Drop Movement and Distribution in No Wind and Windy Conditions for Different Nozzle Sizes" Water 13, no. 21: 3006. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213006

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop