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Article

A Coupled Sampling Design for Parameter Estimation in Microalgae Growth Experiment: Maximizing the Benefits of Uniform and Non-Uniform Sampling

by 1 and 2,*
1
School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xu’feng Mao, Xinan Yin, Zhengjian Yang and Jianguo Zhou
Water 2021, 13(21), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212996
Received: 29 August 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 24 October 2021
As an important primary producer in aquatic ecosystems, the various parameters within the mathematical models are used to describe the growth of microalgae and need to be estimated by carefully designed experiments. Non-uniform sampling has proved to generate a deliberately optimized sampling temporal schedule that can benefit parameter estimation. However, the current non-uniform sampling method depends on prior knowledge of the nominal values of the model parameters. It also largely ignores the uncertainty associated with the nominal values, thus inducing unacceptable parameter estimates. This study focuses on the uncertainty problem and describes a new sampling design that couples the traditional uniform and non-uniform sampling schedules to benefit from the merits of both methods. Based on D-optimal design, we first derive the non-uniform optimal sampling points by maximizing the determinant of the Fisher information matrix. Then the confidence interval around the non-uniform sampling points is determined by Monte Carlo simulations based on the prior knowledge of parameter distribution. Finally, we wrap the non-uniform sampling points with the uniform sampling points within the confidence interval to obtain the ultimate optimal experimental design. Scenedesmus obliquus, whose growth curve follows a four-parameter model, was used as a case study. Compared with the traditional sampling design, the simulation results show that our proposed coupled sampling schedule can partly eliminate the uncertainty in parameter estimates caused by fixed systematic errors in observations. Our coupled sampling can also retain some advantages belonging to non-uniform sampling, in exploiting information maximization and managing the cost of sampling. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal experimental design; D-optimal design; sampling time; microalgae growth models optimal experimental design; D-optimal design; sampling time; microalgae growth models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Zhang, E. A Coupled Sampling Design for Parameter Estimation in Microalgae Growth Experiment: Maximizing the Benefits of Uniform and Non-Uniform Sampling. Water 2021, 13, 2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212996

AMA Style

Li H, Zhang E. A Coupled Sampling Design for Parameter Estimation in Microalgae Growth Experiment: Maximizing the Benefits of Uniform and Non-Uniform Sampling. Water. 2021; 13(21):2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212996

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Hao, and Enze Zhang. 2021. "A Coupled Sampling Design for Parameter Estimation in Microalgae Growth Experiment: Maximizing the Benefits of Uniform and Non-Uniform Sampling" Water 13, no. 21: 2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212996

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