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Article

Evaluation of Karst Spring Discharge Response Using Time-Scale-Based Methods for a Mediterranean Basin of Northern Algeria

1
Vegetable Chemistry-Water-Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Hassiba Benbouali, University of Chlef, B.P. 78C, Ouled Fares, Chlef 02180, Algeria
2
Research Laboratory of Water Resources, Soil and Environment, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat 03000, Algeria
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Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia
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Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
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College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, Brazil
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National Water Research Center, Shubra El-Kheima 13411, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adriana Bruggeman and Bahram Gharabaghi
Water 2021, 13(21), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212946
Received: 24 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
Understanding of behavior, variability, and links between hydrological series is a key element for successful long-term water resources planning and management. In this study, various time-scale-based methods such as correlation and spectral analysis (CSA), cross wavelet (XWT), and wavelet coherence transform (WCT) were applied to assess the response of daily rainfall and karst spring discharge for the Sebaou River basin, which is located on Mediterranean basin in northern Algeria. The CSA revealed that the hydrogeological systems under study are characterized by various memory effect (small, poor, reduced, and extensive) with regularization times ranging from 5 to 50 day. XWT between rainfall and discharge time series indicates few marked disruptions in the spectra between the 1980s and 1990s corresponding to the dry period. The annual process is visible, dominant, and more amplified compared to the multi-annual fluctuations that characterize the 1-3- and 3–6-year modes, which explained the multi-annual regulation. The nonlinear relationship of the short-term components seems to be linked to the periods of storage (infiltration). Compared to the WCT components of 2–5, 26, and 52 weeks, there is a strong coherence for 102 weeks, which explains the long-term component, indicating a quasi-linearity of the rainfall-runoff relationship. According to the obtained results, the construction of more water resources structures is recommended to increase the water storage and improve the water supply due to the richness of the hydrographic network. On the other hand, the impacts of human activities on streamflow due to the looting of rocks and sands in the Sebaou River valleys have reached alarmingly high levels that require urgent intervention for the protection of water and ecological resources and their better rational use. View Full-Text
Keywords: spectral analysis; wavelet coherence; karst springs; hydrogeological; human activities; Algeria spectral analysis; wavelet coherence; karst springs; hydrogeological; human activities; Algeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zerouali, B.; Chettih, M.; Alwetaishi, M.; Abda, Z.; Elbeltagi, A.; Augusto Guimarães Santos, C.; E. Hussein, E. Evaluation of Karst Spring Discharge Response Using Time-Scale-Based Methods for a Mediterranean Basin of Northern Algeria. Water 2021, 13, 2946. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212946

AMA Style

Zerouali B, Chettih M, Alwetaishi M, Abda Z, Elbeltagi A, Augusto Guimarães Santos C, E. Hussein E. Evaluation of Karst Spring Discharge Response Using Time-Scale-Based Methods for a Mediterranean Basin of Northern Algeria. Water. 2021; 13(21):2946. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212946

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zerouali, Bilel, Mohamed Chettih, Mamdooh Alwetaishi, Zaki Abda, Ahmed Elbeltagi, Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos, and Enas E. Hussein. 2021. "Evaluation of Karst Spring Discharge Response Using Time-Scale-Based Methods for a Mediterranean Basin of Northern Algeria" Water 13, no. 21: 2946. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212946

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