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Incorporation of COVID-19-Inspired Behaviour into Agent-Based Modelling for Water Distribution Systems’ Contamination Responses

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
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Academic Editor: Larry Mays
Water 2021, 13(20), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202863
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
Drinking water contamination events in water networks are major challenges which require fast handling by the responsible water utility manager agent, and have been explored in a variety of models and scenarios using, e.g., agent-based modelling. This study proposes to use recent findings during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and draw analogies regarding responses and reactions to these kinds of challenges. This happens within an agent-based model coupled to a hydraulic simulation where the decision making of the individual agents is based on a fuzzy logic system reacting to a contamination event in a water network. Upon detection of anomalies in the water the utility manager agent places mobile sensor equipment in order to determine endangered areas in the water network and warn the consumer agents. Their actions are determined according to their social backgrounds, location in the water network and possible symptoms from ingesting contaminated water by utilising a fuzzy logic system. Results from an example application suggest that placing mobile equipment and warning consumers in real time is essential as part of a proper response to a contamination event. Furthermore, social background factors such as the age or employment status of the population can play a vital role in the consumer agents’ response to a water event. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution systems; agent-based modelling; COVID 19; fuzzy logic water distribution systems; agent-based modelling; COVID 19; fuzzy logic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kadinski, L.; Ostfeld, A. Incorporation of COVID-19-Inspired Behaviour into Agent-Based Modelling for Water Distribution Systems’ Contamination Responses. Water 2021, 13, 2863. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202863

AMA Style

Kadinski L, Ostfeld A. Incorporation of COVID-19-Inspired Behaviour into Agent-Based Modelling for Water Distribution Systems’ Contamination Responses. Water. 2021; 13(20):2863. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202863

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kadinski, Leonid, and Avi Ostfeld. 2021. "Incorporation of COVID-19-Inspired Behaviour into Agent-Based Modelling for Water Distribution Systems’ Contamination Responses" Water 13, no. 20: 2863. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202863

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