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Article

Addressing Climate Internal Variability on Future Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves at Fine Scales across South Korea

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea
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Academic Editor: Xander Wang
Water 2021, 13(20), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202828
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
Designing water infrastructure requires information about the magnitude and frequency of upcoming rainfall. A limited range of data offers just one of many realizations that occurred in the past or will occur in the future; thus, it cannot sufficiently explain climate internal variability (CIV). In this study, future relationships among rainfall intensity (RI), duration, and frequency (called the IDF curve) are established by addressing the CIV and tail characteristics with respect to frequency. Specifically, 100 ensembles of 30-year time series data were created to quantify that uncertainty. Then, the tail characteristics of future extreme rainfall events were investigated to determine whether they will remain similar to those in the present. From the RIs computed for control and future periods under two emission scenarios, following are the key results. Firstly, future RI will increase significantly for most locations, especially near the end of this century. Secondly, the spatial distributions and patterns indicate higher RI in coastal areas and lower RI for the central inland areas of South Korea, and those distributions are similar to those of the climatological mean (CM) and CIV. Thirdly, a straightforward way to reveal whether the tail characteristics of future extreme rainfall events are the same as those in the present is to inspect the slope value for the factor of change (FOC), mFOC. Fourthly, regionalizing with nearby values is very risky when investigating future changes in precipitation frequency estimates. Fifthly, the magnitude of uncertainty is large when the data length is short and gradually decreases as the data length increases for all return periods, but the uncertainty range becomes much greater as the return period becomes large. Lastly, inferring future changes in RI from the CM is feasible only for small return periods and at locations where mFOC is close to zero. View Full-Text
Keywords: IDF curve; climate internal variability; tail characteristics; factor of change; climate change; precipitation frequency estimates IDF curve; climate internal variability; tail characteristics; factor of change; climate change; precipitation frequency estimates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doi, M.V.; Kim, J. Addressing Climate Internal Variability on Future Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves at Fine Scales across South Korea. Water 2021, 13, 2828. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202828

AMA Style

Doi MV, Kim J. Addressing Climate Internal Variability on Future Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves at Fine Scales across South Korea. Water. 2021; 13(20):2828. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202828

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doi, Manh V., and Jongho Kim. 2021. "Addressing Climate Internal Variability on Future Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves at Fine Scales across South Korea" Water 13, no. 20: 2828. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202828

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