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Article

Sediment Sources and Dispersion on the Western Sunda Shelf, Malay Peninsula, Southern South China Sea

1
Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Metallogeny, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
3
School of Environmental and Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alistair Borthwick
Water 2021, 13(20), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202823
Received: 15 August 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
Thirty-nine surface sediment samples collected from the western Sunda Shelf off the Malay Peninsula (WSSMP) in the southern South China Sea (SCS) were analysed for grain size, major and trace elemental compositions, and light/heavy mineral contents to trace the sediment sources and their transport mechanisms in the study area. In the WSSMP, the surface sediments are relatively poorly sorted but transportable. A principal component analysis of 37 elements and grain size fractions indicates that the surface sediments can be grouped into four major assemblages in the study area. Integrating with the light/heavy minerals data in the 63–125 μm fractions of the surface sediment samples, to better trace the sediment sources of the coarse-grained components in the marine environment, the study area can be further divided into four sediment provinces. Province I is located in the northwestern part of the study area. The concentrations of TiO2, Na2O, garnet, siderite, and glauconite in Province I were higher than in the other provinces. The main sediment source for this province originated from the Kelantan River and the Gulf of Thailand transported by the northeastern monsoon current. Province II is located offshore of the Pahang and Endau Rivers. The percentages of TiO2, rare earth elements, Al2O3, quartz, plagioclase, hypersthene, and magnetite in the surface sediments were typically higher in this province than in the other provinces. The Pahang and Endau rivers provide most of the sediments to this province, which are transported by southward coastal currents. Province III is located in the northeastern and eastern parts of the study area, where the coarse-grained sediment fraction had relatively high hornblende and biotite contents. Sediments in this province are mostly transported from the Mekong River during the northeastern monsoon. The other parts of the study area belong to Province IV, where the surface sediment elemental and mineral concentrations were mostly between those of the other three provinces. Therefore, we suggest that Province IV has a mixed source due to inputs from the surrounding rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sunda Shelf; surface sediment; grain size; element; mineral; sediment provenance Sunda Shelf; surface sediment; grain size; element; mineral; sediment provenance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Li, C.; Omar, R.B.; Shi, X.; Zhang, H.; Faiz, N.N. Sediment Sources and Dispersion on the Western Sunda Shelf, Malay Peninsula, Southern South China Sea. Water 2021, 13, 2823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202823

AMA Style

Liu Y, Li C, Omar RB, Shi X, Zhang H, Faiz NN. Sediment Sources and Dispersion on the Western Sunda Shelf, Malay Peninsula, Southern South China Sea. Water. 2021; 13(20):2823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yanguang, Chuanshun Li, Ramlan B. Omar, Xuefa Shi, Hui Zhang, and Noraswana N. Faiz 2021. "Sediment Sources and Dispersion on the Western Sunda Shelf, Malay Peninsula, Southern South China Sea" Water 13, no. 20: 2823. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202823

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