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Hazards, Vulnerability, and Risk Analysis on Wave Overtopping and Coastal Flooding in Low-Lying Coastal Areas: The Case of Costa da Caparica, Portugal

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MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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ENA—Energy and Environment Agency of Arrábida, Avenida Belo Horizonte, Edifício Escarpas Santos Nicolau, 2910-422 Setúbal, Portugal
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CICS.NOVA—Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences, NOVA School of Social Sciences and Humanities, NOVA University Lisbon, Av. de Berna, 26-C, 1069-061 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020237
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
Coastal areas are densely populated areas, and they have been experiencing increasing pressures as a consequence of population growth, but also because of climate change aggravation. For this reason, hazard, vulnerability, and risk indexes have been becoming more recurrent, especially to study and analyze low-lying coastal areas. This study presents an analysis on wave overtopping and coastal flooding, using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) multicriteria methodology, in Costa da Caparica (Portugal). The definition of the different criteria, as well as their respective weighting for the overall problem and index calculation, was carried out with the help of experts in the subject. By following this methodology, and by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), hazard, vulnerability, and risk indexes were obtained. The most hazardous areas are located closest to the sea, where the elevation is the lowest, whereas the most vulnerable areas are in neighborhoods with specific socioeconomic characteristics (high urban and economic density). Overall, around 30% of the study area displays moderate to very high risk regarding the occurrence of overtopping and flooding events. The results of this study will be helpful in decision-making processes in matters of coastal zone management and monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal risk; coastal hazard; coastal vulnerability; multicriteria analysis; analytical hierarchy process coastal risk; coastal hazard; coastal vulnerability; multicriteria analysis; analytical hierarchy process
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, J.C.; Cardona, F.S.; Jóia Santos, C.; Tenedório, J.A. Hazards, Vulnerability, and Risk Analysis on Wave Overtopping and Coastal Flooding in Low-Lying Coastal Areas: The Case of Costa da Caparica, Portugal. Water 2021, 13, 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020237

AMA Style

Ferreira JC, Cardona FS, Jóia Santos C, Tenedório JA. Hazards, Vulnerability, and Risk Analysis on Wave Overtopping and Coastal Flooding in Low-Lying Coastal Areas: The Case of Costa da Caparica, Portugal. Water. 2021; 13(2):237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferreira, José C.; Cardona, Fábio S.; Jóia Santos, Catarina; Tenedório, José A. 2021. "Hazards, Vulnerability, and Risk Analysis on Wave Overtopping and Coastal Flooding in Low-Lying Coastal Areas: The Case of Costa da Caparica, Portugal" Water 13, no. 2: 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020237

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