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Open AccessReview

A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Water

1
Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
2
NGL Water Solutions, NGL Energy Partners LP, Tulsa, OK 74136, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020183
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 10 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
Produced water is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas production. It has a complex matrix composed of native constituents from geologic formation, chemical additives from fracturing fluids, and ubiquitous bacteria. Characterization of produced water is critical to monitor field operation, control processes, evaluate appropriate management practices and treatment effectiveness, and assess potential risks to public health and environment during the use of treated water. There is a limited understanding of produced water composition due to the inherent complexity and lack of reliable and standardized analytical methods. A comprehensive description of current analytical techniques for produced water characterization, including both standard and research methods, is discussed in this review. Multi-tiered analytical procedures are proposed, including field sampling; sample preservation; pretreatment techniques; basic water quality measurements; organic, inorganic, and radioactive materials analysis; and biological characterization. The challenges, knowledge gaps, and research needs for developing advanced analytical methods for produced water characterization, including target and nontarget analyses of unknown chemicals, are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: produced water; water quality; hydraulic fracturing; analytical methods; treatment; reuse produced water; water quality; hydraulic fracturing; analytical methods; treatment; reuse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, W.; Lin, L.; Xu, X.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, Y.; Hall, R.; Xu, P. A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Water. Water 2021, 13, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020183

AMA Style

Jiang W, Lin L, Xu X, Cheng X, Zhang Y, Hall R, Xu P. A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Water. Water. 2021; 13(2):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Wenbin; Lin, Lu; Xu, Xuesong; Cheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yanyan; Hall, Ryan; Xu, Pei. 2021. "A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Water" Water 13, no. 2: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020183

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