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Article

Biogeochemical Responses and Seasonal Dynamics of the Benthic Boundary Layer Microbial Communities during the El Niño 2015 in an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System

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Observatorio de Ecología Microbiana, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Avenida Leopoldo Carvallo 270, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
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HUB Ambiental UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Avenida Leopoldo Carvallo 200, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
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Escuela de Ciencias del Mar e Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile, Altamirano 1480, Valparaíso 2360007, Chile
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Centro de Observación Marino para Estudios de Riesgos del Ambiente Costero (COSTAR), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Valparaíso, Casilla 5080, Reñaca, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
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Laboratorio de Bentos, Escuela de Biología Marina, Universidad de Valparaíso, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020180
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biology: Biodiversity and Conservation)
The Eastern South Pacific coastal zone is characterized by seasonal and interannual variability, driven by upwelling and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), respectively. These oceanographical conditions influence microbial communities and their contribution to nutrient and greenhouse gases recycling, especially in bottom waters due to oxygenation. This article addresses the seasonal hydrographic and biogeochemical conditions in the water and sediments during El Niño 2015. Bottom water active microbial communities, including nitrifiers, were studied using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA (cDNA) and RT-qPCR, respectively. The results of the hydrographic analysis showed changes in the water column associated with the predominance of sub-Antarctic Waters characterized by warmed and low nutrients in the surface and more oxygenated conditions at the bottom in comparison with El Niño 2014. The organic matter quantity and quality decreased during fall and winter. The bottom water active microbial assemblages were dominated by archaea (Ca. Poseidoniales) and putative ammonia oxidizing archaea. Active bacteria affiliated to SAR11, Marinimicrobia and Nitrospina, and oxygen deficient realms (Desulfobacterales, SUP05 clade and anammox) suffered variations, possibly associated with oxygen and redox conditions in the benthic boundary layer. Nitrifying functional groups contributed significantly more during late fall and winter which was consistent with higher bottom water oxygenation. Relationships between apparent oxygen utilization nitrate and nitrous oxide in the water support the contribution of nitrification to this greenhouse gas distribution in the water. In general, our study suggests that seasonal oceanographic variability during an El Niño year influences the microbial community and thus remineralization potential, which supports the need to carry out longer time series to identify the relevance of seasonality under ENSO in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial communities; sediments; organic matter composition; greenhouse gases; El Niño Southern Oscillation; seasonal upwelling microbial communities; sediments; organic matter composition; greenhouse gases; El Niño Southern Oscillation; seasonal upwelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molina, V.; Cornejo-D’Ottone, M.; Soto, E.H.; Quiroga, E.; Alarcón, G.; Silva, D.; Acuña, C.; Silva, N. Biogeochemical Responses and Seasonal Dynamics of the Benthic Boundary Layer Microbial Communities during the El Niño 2015 in an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. Water 2021, 13, 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020180

AMA Style

Molina V, Cornejo-D’Ottone M, Soto EH, Quiroga E, Alarcón G, Silva D, Acuña C, Silva N. Biogeochemical Responses and Seasonal Dynamics of the Benthic Boundary Layer Microbial Communities during the El Niño 2015 in an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. Water. 2021; 13(2):180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molina, Verónica; Cornejo-D’Ottone, Marcela; Soto, Eulogio H.; Quiroga, Eduardo; Alarcón, Guillermo; Silva, Daniela; Acuña, Carla; Silva, Nelson. 2021. "Biogeochemical Responses and Seasonal Dynamics of the Benthic Boundary Layer Microbial Communities during the El Niño 2015 in an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System" Water 13, no. 2: 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020180

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