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Open AccessArticle

Natural Organic Matter Removal from Raw Surface Water: Benchmarking Performance of Chemical Coagulants through Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Matrix Spectroscopy Analysis

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Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
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Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan
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Institute of Hot Spring Industry, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
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School of Technology, University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo 5023, Philippines
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Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, USA
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020146
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 10 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Chemical disinfection of surface waters has been proven effective in minimizing the risk of contamination by water-borne pathogens. However, surface waters contain natural organic matter (NOM) which, upon chemical disinfection, is readily converted into hazardous disinfection-by-products. Hence, NOM removal from these waters is critical. Chemical coagulation is a readily implementable technology to minimize these undesired side-effects by NOM removal. Herein, capabilities of ferric chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) as pre-treatment for NOM abatement from natural raw surface water have been benchmarked. Excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) spectroscopy characterization of NOM fractions demonstrated high removal efficiency. A two-level full factorial design was employed to analyze the effects of coagulant dosage and initial pH on the removal of turbidity, humic acid-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances from the raw water. Higher removal of ~77% NOM was attained with PACl than with FeCl3 (~72%). Optimization through response surface methodology showed that the initial pH—coagulant dosage interaction was significant in removing NOM and turbidity for both PACl and FeCl3. These results identify the opportunity for coagulation technologies to prevent and minimize disinfection-by-products formation through NOM removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; excitation-emission fluorescence matrix; full factorial design; natural organic matter; physical water treatment; raw surface water coagulation; excitation-emission fluorescence matrix; full factorial design; natural organic matter; physical water treatment; raw surface water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Go, R.J.C.; Yang, H.-L.; Kan, C.-C.; Ong, D.C.; Garcia-Segura, S.; de Luna, M.D.G. Natural Organic Matter Removal from Raw Surface Water: Benchmarking Performance of Chemical Coagulants through Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Matrix Spectroscopy Analysis. Water 2021, 13, 146. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020146

AMA Style

Go RJC, Yang H-L, Kan C-C, Ong DC, Garcia-Segura S, de Luna MDG. Natural Organic Matter Removal from Raw Surface Water: Benchmarking Performance of Chemical Coagulants through Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Matrix Spectroscopy Analysis. Water. 2021; 13(2):146. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Go, Raymond J.C.; Yang, Hui-Ling; Kan, Chi-Chuan; Ong, Dennis C.; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; de Luna, Mark D.G. 2021. "Natural Organic Matter Removal from Raw Surface Water: Benchmarking Performance of Chemical Coagulants through Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Matrix Spectroscopy Analysis" Water 13, no. 2: 146. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020146

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