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Open AccessArticle

Essential Trace Elements and Arsenic in Thermal Springs, Afghanistan

1
Department of Geology, Faculty of Geosciences, Bamyan University, Bamyan City, Bamyan 1601, Afghanistan
2
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
3
The Environment & Resource Efficiency Cluster (EREC), School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, Nazarbayev University, Nur Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020134
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 1 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Groundwater)
Thermal springs are natural hydrogeological features which are highly affected by local volcanism or tectonic activity. Thermal springs are the best source of hydrothermal energy to heat houses and aid in the recovery of skin diseases. However, they consist of some heavy and trace metals such as arsenic, lead, zinc, copper, iron, and so forth. Somehow, the thermal springs of central Bamyan have become contaminated with some essential trace elements. Thus, this study was conducted to assess and determine the number of these trace elements in the thermal springs. To achieve these objectives, a preliminary survey, water sampling, and in situ measurements of physicochemical parameters were conducted in research areas. All the collected water samples were analyzed chemically to determine the amount of trace elements, including arsenic, barium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The study shows that temperature ranged from 16 to 32 °C, while the average pH value was 6.25. Almost all of the trace elements showed an extremely high value of electrical conductivity (average: 5713 µS/cm) and significantly high total dissolved solids (average: 3063 mg/L). The average value of chloride was 797 mg/L, which is dramatically higher than standard values. In regard to trace element concentration, almost all thermal springs were heavily contaminated with arsenic and it was recorded as 100 µg/L in the eastern part of central Bamyan. The average amounts of barium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were 4.14, 6.05, 1.90, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, the water of the thermal springs of central Bamyan are not suitable for human consumption because of the significant amount of trace elements as well as the high-water quality index value. Using these springs for drinking and irrigation purposes has been deemed inappropriate. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal spring; trace element; arsenic; Bamyan; central Afghanistan; contamination thermal spring; trace element; arsenic; Bamyan; central Afghanistan; contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jawadi, H.A.; Malistani, H.A.; Moheghy, M.A.; Sagin, J. Essential Trace Elements and Arsenic in Thermal Springs, Afghanistan. Water 2021, 13, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020134

AMA Style

Jawadi HA, Malistani HA, Moheghy MA, Sagin J. Essential Trace Elements and Arsenic in Thermal Springs, Afghanistan. Water. 2021; 13(2):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jawadi, Hussain A.; Malistani, Hasan A.; Moheghy, Mohammad A.; Sagin, Jay. 2021. "Essential Trace Elements and Arsenic in Thermal Springs, Afghanistan" Water 13, no. 2: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020134

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