Next Article in Journal
Low Dose Coagulant and Local Soil Ballast Effectively Remove Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) from Tropical Lake Water without Cell Damage
Previous Article in Journal
Dynamic Hydraulics in a Drinking Water Distribution System Influence Suspended Particles and Turbidity, But Not Microbiology
Article

Health Risk and Geochemical Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Sediment along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary (India)

1
Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700019, India
2
Centro Servizi Metrologici e Tecnologici Avanzati (CeSMA), Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia 21, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry and Biology “A. Zambelli”, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno 84084, Italy
4
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia ed. 7, 80126 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020110
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
This study investigated sediment spatial and seasonal distribution of trace elements (TEs) (n = 16) and human health effects along the Hooghly River Estuary (India). The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), hazard quotient (HQ), modified hazard quotient (mHQ) and toxic risk unit (TRI) were calculated to estimate sediment pollution level, while hazard index (HI) and lifetime cancer risk (LCR) were used to assess TEs enrichment vs. human health. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of TEs were: Cd (0.01–1.58), Cr (41.98–105.49), Cu (16.41–51.09), Ni (28.37–63.90), Fe (22075–47919), Mn (423–630), Co (11.43–23.11), Zn (48.82–105.81), V (63.92–138.92), Pb (25.01–43.27) and Ti (0.18–3.50); As (2.92–16.26), B (59.34–98.78), Si (11.52–98.78); Be (1.71–4.81), Ba (95.23–293.72). From Igeo and EF, Cd was the major contaminant, while Ni presented moderate/high contamination (HQ and TRI). Children were more exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks compared to adults. For non-carcinogenic substances, no significant risk was found to both children and adults (HIs < 1). The LCR for Cr (3.924 × 10−4 for children) and As (1.379 × 10−4 for children) was higher than the threshold limit value (TLV, 10−4 and 10−6) indicating significant carcinogenic risks to be managed. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace elements; sediment contamination; ecological risk; human health risk; Hooghly River Estuary trace elements; sediment contamination; ecological risk; human health risk; Hooghly River Estuary
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mondal, P.; Lofrano, G.; Carotenuto, M.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Libralato, G.; Sarkar, S.K. Health Risk and Geochemical Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Sediment along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary (India). Water 2021, 13, 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020110

AMA Style

Mondal P, Lofrano G, Carotenuto M, Guida M, Trifuoggi M, Libralato G, Sarkar SK. Health Risk and Geochemical Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Sediment along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary (India). Water. 2021; 13(2):110. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020110

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mondal, Priyanka; Lofrano, Giusy; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Libralato, Giovanni; Sarkar, Santosh K. 2021. "Health Risk and Geochemical Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Sediment along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary (India)" Water 13, no. 2: 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020110

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop