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Article

Constructed Wetlands to Face Water Scarcity and Water Pollution Risks: Learning from Farmers’ Perception in Alicante, Spain

1
Water and Territory Research Group, Interuniversity Institute of Geography, University of Alicante, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain
2
Environmental Intelligence for Global Change Lab, Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Department of Regional Geographic Analysis and Physical Geography, University of Alicante, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos S. Akratos
Water 2021, 13(17), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172431
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 4 September 2021
Treated wastewater is constantly produced and relatively unaffected by climatic conditions, while Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are recognized as green technology and a cost-effective alternative to improve treated wastewater quality standards. This paper analyses how farmers consider (1) treated wastewater to face water scarcity risk and (2) CW as mechanisms to face agricultural water pollution in a climate change adaptation context. A survey about climate change perception and adaptation measures was answered by 177 farmers from two irrigation communities near El Hondo coastal wetland and the Santa Pola saltmarshes, both perceived as natural-constructed systems in Alicante, southern Spain. Results highlighted how, even with poor-quality standards, treated wastewater is considered a non-riskier measure and more reliable option when addressing climate change impacts. Overall, physical water harvesting (such as CWs) is the favorite choice when investing in water technologies, being perceived as the best option for users of treated wastewater and those concerned about water quality standards. Consequently, CWs were recognized as mechanisms to increase water supply and reduce water pollution. Policy-makers and water managers can use these learnings from farmers’ experience to identify the main barriers and benefits of using treated wastewater and CWs to address water scarcity and water pollution risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: water scarcity; water pollution; treated wastewater; constructed wetlands; farmers; climate change; El Hondo coastal wetland; Santa Pola saltmarshes; Alicante; Spain water scarcity; water pollution; treated wastewater; constructed wetlands; farmers; climate change; El Hondo coastal wetland; Santa Pola saltmarshes; Alicante; Spain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ricart, S.; Rico-Amorós, A.M. Constructed Wetlands to Face Water Scarcity and Water Pollution Risks: Learning from Farmers’ Perception in Alicante, Spain. Water 2021, 13, 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172431

AMA Style

Ricart S, Rico-Amorós AM. Constructed Wetlands to Face Water Scarcity and Water Pollution Risks: Learning from Farmers’ Perception in Alicante, Spain. Water. 2021; 13(17):2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ricart, Sandra, and Antonio M. Rico-Amorós 2021. "Constructed Wetlands to Face Water Scarcity and Water Pollution Risks: Learning from Farmers’ Perception in Alicante, Spain" Water 13, no. 17: 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172431

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