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Article

Climate vs. Human Impact: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Streamflow Variation

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School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia
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Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Center for Advanced Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Department of Watershed Management and Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 1411713116, Iran
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Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
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Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dariusz Wrzesiński and Leszek Sobkowiak
Water 2021, 13(17), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172404
Received: 25 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 29 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
This paper presents a novel framework comprising analytical, hydrological, and remote sensing techniques to separate the impacts of climate variation and regional human activities on streamflow changes in the Karkheh River basin (KRB) of western Iran. To investigate the type of streamflow changes, the recently developed DBEST algorithm was used to provide a better view of the underlying reasons. The Budyko method and the HBV model were used to investigate the decreasing streamflow, and DBEST detected a non-abrupt change in the streamflow trend, indicating the impacts of human activity in the region. Remote sensing analysis confirmed this finding by distinguishing land-use change in the region. The algorithm found an abrupt change in precipitation, reflecting the impacts of climate variation on streamflow. The final assessment showed that the observed streamflow reduction is associated with both climate variation and human influence. The combination of increased irrigated area (from 9 to 19% of the total basin area), reduction of forests (from 11 to 3%), and decreasing annual precipitation has substantially reduced the streamflow rate in the basin. The developed framework can be implemented in other regions to thoroughly investigate human vs. climate impacts on the hydrological cycle, particularly where data availability is a challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: Budyko; Karkheh River basin; HBV; remote sensing; land use change; climate variation Budyko; Karkheh River basin; HBV; remote sensing; land use change; climate variation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kazemi, H.; Hashemi, H.; Maghsood, F.F.; Hosseini, S.H.; Sarukkalige, R.; Jamali, S.; Berndtsson, R. Climate vs. Human Impact: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Streamflow Variation. Water 2021, 13, 2404. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172404

AMA Style

Kazemi H, Hashemi H, Maghsood FF, Hosseini SH, Sarukkalige R, Jamali S, Berndtsson R. Climate vs. Human Impact: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Streamflow Variation. Water. 2021; 13(17):2404. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172404

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kazemi, Hamideh, Hossein Hashemi, Fatemeh F. Maghsood, Seyyed H. Hosseini, Ranjan Sarukkalige, Sadegh Jamali, and Ronny Berndtsson. 2021. "Climate vs. Human Impact: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Streamflow Variation" Water 13, no. 17: 2404. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172404

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