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Article

Surface-Water Quality of the Gulf of Papagayo, North Pacific, Costa Rica

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Escuela de Química, Universidad Nacional, Heredia 40101, Costa Rica
2
Doctorado en Ciencias Naturales para el Desarrollo (DOCINADE), Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional, Universidad Estatal a Distancias, San Jose 10308, Costa Rica
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Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional, Heredia 40101, Costa Rica
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Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional, Heredia 40101, Costa Rica
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Centro de Recursos Hìdricos para Centro America y el Caribe (HIDROCEC), Universidad Nacional, Liberia 50101, Costa Rica
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Departamento de Microorganismos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, La Habana 67300, Cuba
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel Bruno
Water 2021, 13(17), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172324
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Coastal Oceanography of Freshwater Influenced Regions)
In recent years, the northwestern part of the North Pacific areas of Costa Rica has undergone rapid socioeconomic development. This situation, combined with the scarce available information about the water quality of the Gulf of Papagayo, became the starting point to carry out a study to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of physicochemical and biological parameters of surface waters. Seven samplings were collected during the dry season and the rainy season from October 2016 to February 2018. Water quality parameters such as: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a of six analytes: nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and biological oxygen demand were measured. The results showed that phosphate and ammonium levels were lower during the rainy season (<6 µg P-PO4−3 L−1–9.53 µg P-PO4−3 L−1 and <11 µg N-NH4+ L−1–9.57 µg N-NH4+ L−1) than during the dry season (<6 µg P-PO4−3 L−1–13.64 µg P-PO4−3 L−1 and <11 µg N-NH4+ L−1–14.43 µg N-NH4+ L−1), which may be related to low rainfall (0, 00–26, 16 mm) during the sampling period. The dry season showed enrichment of ammonium, phosphate, and chlorophyll a due to the influence of the coastal upwelling for the intensification of the Papagayo winds from December to March. The physical, chemical, and biological indicators demonstrated that the Gulf waters had adequate quality. Nonetheless, there are specific areas such as Culebra Bay with conditions that could show deterioration of water quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature; salinity; dissolved oxygen; chlorophyll a; nutrients temperature; salinity; dissolved oxygen; chlorophyll a; nutrients
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saravia-Arguedas, A.Y.; Vega-Bolaños, H.; Vargas-Hernández, J.M.; Suárez-Serrano, A.; Sierra-Sierra, L.; Tisseaux-Navarro, A.; Cambronero-Solano, S.; Lugioyo-Gallardo, G.M. Surface-Water Quality of the Gulf of Papagayo, North Pacific, Costa Rica. Water 2021, 13, 2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172324

AMA Style

Saravia-Arguedas AY, Vega-Bolaños H, Vargas-Hernández JM, Suárez-Serrano A, Sierra-Sierra L, Tisseaux-Navarro A, Cambronero-Solano S, Lugioyo-Gallardo GM. Surface-Water Quality of the Gulf of Papagayo, North Pacific, Costa Rica. Water. 2021; 13(17):2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saravia-Arguedas, Ana Y., Hannia Vega-Bolaños, José M. Vargas-Hernández, Andrea Suárez-Serrano, Luis Sierra-Sierra, Alexandre Tisseaux-Navarro, Sergio Cambronero-Solano, and Gladys M. Lugioyo-Gallardo 2021. "Surface-Water Quality of the Gulf of Papagayo, North Pacific, Costa Rica" Water 13, no. 17: 2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172324

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