This study assessed people’s water literacy awareness, attitudes, and behaviors to iden-tify strategies for coping with drought and water scarcity. The data from 653 questionnaires were analyzed by statistical validation and using IBM SPSS 22 and IBM AMOS 26.0. The views of students, housewives, swimming pool owners, schoolteachers, and experts were collected and finally examined by multivariate validation analysis. People have a high level of water literacy and developed sufficient water-saving habits (4.60). Although most people believe that tap water is of good quality, it is difficult to deliver and expensive, and cannot be consumed directly. Even though people are aware of the water shortage crisis, willing to carry water bottles instead of using plastic bottled water, choosing to buy environmentally friendly cleaning products (4.08), performing water conservation behaviors on the go, taking showers within 6–15 min, and taking the initiative to notify the relevant authorities to repair water facilities, the frequency of using bottled water is still high due to work and living habits, consumption ability, and mobility constraints (34.6), and they are less willing to buy products with the “water proficiency label” (4.08) and participate in stream-cleaning activities (3.57). The willingness to participate in water purification activities is low. The public also feels that the government is responsible for solving the current water shortage crisis (3.71). There are significant differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of water literacy among people of different genders, ages, and regions, depending on their work and consumption abilities, quality of life, and convenience (p
< 0.05). Increasing water responsibility can enhance environmental management actions, consumer economic actions, and civic actions, while enhancing water perceptions and crisis awareness can further strengthen civic behaviors.
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