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Article

Microbial Biofilm Diversity and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Drinking Water Distribution System of Peshawar, Pakistan

1
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Hayat Abad Phase 5, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
2
School of Biological Sciences, Health and Life Sciences Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AX, UK
3
Department of Biosciences, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi 75400, Pakistan
4
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
5
Rehman Medical Institute, Hayat Abad Phase 5, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sandi Orlić
Water 2021, 13(13), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131788
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Communities in Water Environments: Dynamics and Interaction)
The occurrence of microbial communities harboring antibiotic resistance bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in the drinking water distribution system pose a significant threat to the aquatic ecosystem and to public health, especially in developing countries. In this study, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to explore bacterial community diversity and the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in biofilms collected from the drinking water distribution system of Peshawar, the capital city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The results showed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla (89.79%) in all biofilm samples, followed by Bacteroidetes (3.48%) and Actinobacteria (2.79%). At genus level, Pseudomonas was the most common (22.45%) in all biofilm samples. Overall, bacterial diversity and richness was higher in biofilm samples collected from the consumer end than the source site. Bacterial diversity was also dependent on the piping material (GI vs. PVC) and water supply (direct vs. indirect). Functional annotation reveals a differential abundance of common metabolic pathways at source and consumer end. Resistome analysis revealed a prevalence of resistance genes against 12 classes of antibiotics in all samples with macrolides resistance being the commonest at the consumer end (42.1%) and fluoroquinolone resistance at the source end (24%). To our knowledge, this is the first study that provides new insight and evidence into the microbial community diversity and antibiotic resistance in the drinking water supply system of Peshawar. These findings may ultimately help the authorities to design and implement effective strategies for controlling biofilms and ensuring a continuous supply of safe drinking water to the community. View Full-Text
Keywords: shotgun metagenomic sequencing; bacterial diversity; core species; functional potential; resistome shotgun metagenomic sequencing; bacterial diversity; core species; functional potential; resistome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ullah, H.; Shahzad, M.; Saleem, F.; Ali, T.; Azim, M.K.; Khan, H.; Ali, J.; Ahmed, J. Microbial Biofilm Diversity and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Drinking Water Distribution System of Peshawar, Pakistan. Water 2021, 13, 1788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131788

AMA Style

Ullah H, Shahzad M, Saleem F, Ali T, Azim MK, Khan H, Ali J, Ahmed J. Microbial Biofilm Diversity and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Drinking Water Distribution System of Peshawar, Pakistan. Water. 2021; 13(13):1788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131788

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ullah, Habib, Muhammad Shahzad, Faizan Saleem, Taj Ali, Muhammad K. Azim, Haris Khan, Johar Ali, and Jawad Ahmed. 2021. "Microbial Biofilm Diversity and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Drinking Water Distribution System of Peshawar, Pakistan" Water 13, no. 13: 1788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131788

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