The present study examines the seasonal and decadal changes of the variance of the synoptic (periods from 2 days to 30 days) and mesoscale (periods from 2 h to 2 days) sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea. Long-term hourly sea level records were used at 12 tide gauges located in different parts of the sea. We used spectral analysis to estimate the variance for different time scales. The spectral density of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea has maximum values in winter when the cyclonic activity in the atmosphere is more intensive. The maximum variances of synoptic
sea level oscillations are observed in winter, except for the heads of the Gulf of Finland (Gorny Institute) and Gulf of Riga (Pärnu), where the absolute maximum of
is reached in November. The variances
from November to February are 2–3 and 5 times higher than in the summer. The values of
are characterized by high correlation up to 0.7–0.75 with wind variations and atmospheric indices (NAO, AO, and SCAND) in winter and low correlation in summer. The zonal wind and
in Gorny Institute are characterized by wide areas of high coherence at periods of 0.7–4 years. At Gedser,
decreased by 19%, and at Ratan it increased by 17% over 90 years. The values of
over 90 years increased by 32% at Klagshamn, 36% at Ratan, and up to 60% at Kungsholmsfort.
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