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Article

Seasonal and Decadal Variations of the Variance of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Sea Level Variability in the Baltic Sea

by 1,2,* and 1,3
1
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
2
Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics, Roshydromet, 129128 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Oceanology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Serafeim E. Poulos
Water 2021, 13(13), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131785
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
The present study examines the seasonal and decadal changes of the variance of the synoptic (periods from 2 days to 30 days) and mesoscale (periods from 2 h to 2 days) sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea. Long-term hourly sea level records were used at 12 tide gauges located in different parts of the sea. We used spectral analysis to estimate the variance for different time scales. The spectral density of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea has maximum values in winter when the cyclonic activity in the atmosphere is more intensive. The maximum variances of synoptic σsyn2  and mesoscale σmes2 sea level oscillations are observed in winter, except for the heads of the Gulf of Finland (Gorny Institute) and Gulf of Riga (Pärnu), where the absolute maximum of σsyn2 is reached in November. The variances σsyn2 and σmes2 from November to February are 2–3 and 5 times higher than in the summer. The values of σsyn2 and σmes2 are characterized by high correlation up to 0.7–0.75 with wind variations and atmospheric indices (NAO, AO, and SCAND) in winter and low correlation in summer. The zonal wind and σmes2 in Gorny Institute are characterized by wide areas of high coherence at periods of 0.7–4 years. At Gedser, σsyn2 decreased by 19%, and at Ratan it increased by 17% over 90 years. The values of σmes2 over 90 years increased by 32% at Klagshamn, 36% at Ratan, and up to 60% at Kungsholmsfort. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea level; Baltic Sea; storm surges; spectral analysis; tide gauge sea level; Baltic Sea; storm surges; spectral analysis; tide gauge
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medvedev, I.; Medvedeva, A. Seasonal and Decadal Variations of the Variance of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Sea Level Variability in the Baltic Sea. Water 2021, 13, 1785. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131785

AMA Style

Medvedev I, Medvedeva A. Seasonal and Decadal Variations of the Variance of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Sea Level Variability in the Baltic Sea. Water. 2021; 13(13):1785. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131785

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medvedev, Igor, and Alisa Medvedeva. 2021. "Seasonal and Decadal Variations of the Variance of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Sea Level Variability in the Baltic Sea" Water 13, no. 13: 1785. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131785

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