Dams are constructed to benefit humans; however, dam-break disasters are unpredictable and inevitable leading to economic and human life losses. The sequential catastrophe of a dam break directly depends on its outflow hydrograph and the extent of population centers that are located downstream of an affected dam. The population density of the cities located in the vicinity of dams has increased in recent times and since a dam break hydrograph relies on many uncertainties and complexities in devising a dam-break outflow hydrograph, more researches for the accurate estimation of a dam-break flood propagation, extent and topography change becomes valuable; therefore, in this paper, the authors propose a novel and simplified dam-break outflow rate equation that is applicable for sudden-partial dam breaks. The proposed equation is extensively affected by a dam-break shape. Therefore, the inference of a dam-break shape on a dam-break outflow rate is investigated in the current study by executing hydraulic experiments in a long, dry bed, frictionless and rectangular water channel connected to a finite water tank to acquire a mean break-shape factor. The proposed equation is further validated by regenerating the Malpasset dam-break hydrograph and comparing it to the existing methods and also by installing it on an existing 2D hydro-morphodynamics flood simulation model. Finally, Amagase Dam’s (arch-reaction dam in Japan) break simulation is executed as a case study. The results of the simulations revealed that the greater the height of a dam-break section, the more devastating its flood consequences would be.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited