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Erratum published on 12 July 2021, see Water 2021, 13(14), 1919.
Article

Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt

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Technical Office of General Administration of WR&I for El-Sharkia Governorate, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza 12112, Egypt
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Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
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Center for Research and Innovation in Construction, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(12), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121715
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
This paper presents a comprehensive study to assess the impact of climate change on Egypt’s water resources, focusing on irrigation water for agricultural crops, considering that the agriculture sector is the largest consumer of water in Egypt. The study aims to estimate future climate conditions using general circulation models (GCMs), to assess the impact of climate change and temperature increase on water demands for irrigation using the CROPWAT 8 model, and to determine the suitable irrigation type to adapt with future climate change. A case study was selected in the Middle part of Egypt. The study area includes Giza, Bani-Sweif, Al-Fayoum, and Minya governorates. The irrigation water requirements for major crops under current weather conditions and future climatic changes were estimated. Under the conditions of the four selected models CCSM-30, GFDLCM20, GFDLCM21, and GISS-EH, as well as the chosen scenario of A1BAIM, climate model (MAGICC/ScenGen) was applied in 2050 and 2100 to estimate the potential rise in the annual mean temperature in Middle Egypt. The results of the MAGICC/SceGen model indicated that the potential rise in temperature in the study area will be 2.12 °C in 2050, and 3.96 °C in 2100. The percentage of increase in irrigation water demands for winter crops under study ranged from 6.1 to 7.3% in 2050, and from 11.7 to 13.2% in 2100. At the same time, the increase in irrigation water demands for summer crops ranged from 4.9 to 5.8% in 2050, and from 9.3 to 10.9% in 2100. For Nili crops, the increase ranged from 5.0 to 5.1% in 2050, and from 9.6 to 9.9% in 2100. The increase in water demands due to climate change will affect the water security in Egypt, as the available water resources are limited, and population growth is another challenge which requires a proper management of water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; water resources; agricultural crops; Middle Egypt; climate and irrigation models climate change; water resources; agricultural crops; Middle Egypt; climate and irrigation models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mostafa, S.M.; Wahed, O.; El-Nashar, W.Y.; El-Marsafawy, S.M.; Zeleňáková, M.; Abd-Elhamid, H.F. Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt. Water 2021, 13, 1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121715

AMA Style

Mostafa SM, Wahed O, El-Nashar WY, El-Marsafawy SM, Zeleňáková M, Abd-Elhamid HF. Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt. Water. 2021; 13(12):1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121715

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mostafa, Soha M., Osama Wahed, Walaa Y. El-Nashar, Samia M. El-Marsafawy, Martina Zeleňáková, and Hany F. Abd-Elhamid 2021. "Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt" Water 13, no. 12: 1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121715

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