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Article

Estimation of the Average Retention Time of Precipitation at the Surface of a Catchment Area for Lake Biwa

1
Lake Biwa Museum, Oroshimo, Kusatsu 606-8501, Japan
2
Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8306, Japan
3
Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute, Otsu 520-0022, Japan
4
Lake Biwa Sigma Research Center, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto 525-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anas Ghadouani
Water 2021, 13(12), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121711
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inland Aquatic Ecosystems and Conservation)
In a lake catchment system, we analyzed the lake water-level responses to precipitation. Moreover, we identified the average precipitation retention time—due to subsurface flows—from the delay time calculated using the response function with data of water level and catchment precipitation (both rainfall and snowfall) collected over 30 years of continuous observations of Lake Biwa, Japan. We focused on the snow reserves and the water-level response delay due to the snowmelt of Lake Biwa catchment. We concluded that the average precipitation retention time of the catchment subsurface flow (i.e., above the impermeable layer) in Lake Biwa was approximately 45 days. Additionally, the precipitation retention time during snowmelt was shorter than that during the dry season. Overall, the shape of the response function reflects the lake system. This knowledge improves the understanding of lake systems and can be helpful for lake resource managers. Furthermore, finding the delay time from the response function may be useful for determining the contribution of rainfall to increasing the water levels of other lakes. Therefore, our results can contribute to the development of management strategies to address inland aquatic ecosystems and conservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake water level; precipitation retention time; impulse response function; subsurface flow; snow water equivalent; snowmelt; climate change; Lake Biwa lake water level; precipitation retention time; impulse response function; subsurface flow; snow water equivalent; snowmelt; climate change; Lake Biwa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwaki, M.; Yamashiki, Y.; Toda, T.; Jiao, C.; Kumagai, M. Estimation of the Average Retention Time of Precipitation at the Surface of a Catchment Area for Lake Biwa. Water 2021, 13, 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121711

AMA Style

Iwaki M, Yamashiki Y, Toda T, Jiao C, Kumagai M. Estimation of the Average Retention Time of Precipitation at the Surface of a Catchment Area for Lake Biwa. Water. 2021; 13(12):1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iwaki, Maho, Yosuke Yamashiki, Takashi Toda, Chunmeng Jiao, and Michio Kumagai. 2021. "Estimation of the Average Retention Time of Precipitation at the Surface of a Catchment Area for Lake Biwa" Water 13, no. 12: 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121711

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