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Article

Wastewater Treatment Plants in Mediterranean Spain: An Exploration of Relations between Water Treatments, Water Reuse, and Governance

1
Divisió de Planificació Energètica, Institut Català d’Energia (ICAEN), 08038 Barcelona, Spain
2
Departament de Geografia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anas Ghadouani
Water 2021, 13(12), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121710
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are fundamental to enable the transition towards the principles of a circular economy in water supply. In Mediterranean Spain, an area with recurrent episodes of water stress, treated wastewater may become a critical resource for the future. However, its incorporation into the array of potential water options opens up questions regarding the different qualities obtained with each treatment, the extent of existing water reuse practices, or the governance regime of plants. In this paper, the state of WWTPs in Mediterranean Spain is analyzed, with focus on plant sizes, treatment technologies, water use, and governance regimes. The latter shows a strong presence of private WWTPs and a lesser extent of public–private WWTPs, while the number of public plants is small. Regarding treatment technologies, the most sophisticated systems are found in public–private plants that are also the largest in size. Reclaimed water is very significant for agricultural and golf course irrigation in some areas (Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia), but still relatively incipient for other uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater; treatments; management; uses of reclaimed water; Mediterranean Spain wastewater; treatments; management; uses of reclaimed water; Mediterranean Spain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Villanueva, P.; Sauri, D. Wastewater Treatment Plants in Mediterranean Spain: An Exploration of Relations between Water Treatments, Water Reuse, and Governance. Water 2021, 13, 1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121710

AMA Style

Rodríguez-Villanueva P, Sauri D. Wastewater Treatment Plants in Mediterranean Spain: An Exploration of Relations between Water Treatments, Water Reuse, and Governance. Water. 2021; 13(12):1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez-Villanueva, Paula, and David Sauri. 2021. "Wastewater Treatment Plants in Mediterranean Spain: An Exploration of Relations between Water Treatments, Water Reuse, and Governance" Water 13, no. 12: 1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121710

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