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Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment and Zonation Using an Integrating Analytic Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio Model for the Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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National Engineering Research Center for Geographic Information System (NERCGIS), School of Geography, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
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State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing (LIESMARS), Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
4
Airborne Remote Sensing Center, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors listed share first authorship.
Academic Editors: Luca Giovanni Lanza and Luis Garrote
Water 2021, 13(12), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121650
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Pakistan is a flood-prone country and almost every year, it is hit by floods of varying magnitudes. This study was conducted to generate a flash flood map using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and frequency ratio (FR) models in the ArcGIS 10.6 environment. Eight flash-flood-causing physical parameters were considered for this study. Five parameters were based on the digital elevation model (DEM), Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS), and Sentinel-2 satellite, including distance from the river and drainage density slope, elevation, and land cover, respectively. Two other parameters were geology and soil, consisting of different rock and soil formations, respectively, where both layers were classified based on their resistance against water percolation. One parameter was rainfall. Rainfall observation data obtained from five meteorological stations exist close to the Chitral District, Pakistan. According to its significant importance in the occurrence of a flash flood, each criterion was allotted an estimated weight with the help of AHP and FR. In the end, all the parameters were integrated using weighted overlay analysis in which the influence value of the drainage density was given the highest value. This gave the output in terms of five flood risk zones: very high risk, high risk, moderate risk, low risk, and very low risk. According to the results, 1168 km2, that is, 8% of the total area, showed a very high risk of flood occurrence. Reshun, Mastuj, Booni, Colony, and some other villages were identified as high-risk zones of the study area, which have been drastically damaged many times by flash floods. This study is pioneering in its field and provides policy guidelines for risk managers, emergency and disaster response services, urban and infrastructure planners, hydrologists, and climate scientists. View Full-Text
Keywords: GIS; ALOS-PALSAR DEM; AHP; FR; flash flood susceptibility assessment; flash flood zonation GIS; ALOS-PALSAR DEM; AHP; FR; flash flood susceptibility assessment; flash flood zonation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Waqas, H.; Lu, L.; Tariq, A.; Li, Q.; Baqa, M.F.; Xing, J.; Sajjad, A. Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment and Zonation Using an Integrating Analytic Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio Model for the Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Water 2021, 13, 1650. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121650

AMA Style

Waqas H, Lu L, Tariq A, Li Q, Baqa MF, Xing J, Sajjad A. Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment and Zonation Using an Integrating Analytic Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio Model for the Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Water. 2021; 13(12):1650. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121650

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waqas, Hassan, Linlin Lu, Aqil Tariq, Qingting Li, Muhammad F. Baqa, Jici Xing, and Asif Sajjad. 2021. "Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment and Zonation Using an Integrating Analytic Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio Model for the Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan" Water 13, no. 12: 1650. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121650

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