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Assessment of Complex Terminal Groundwater Aquifer for Different Use of Oued Souf Valley (Algeria) Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Geostatistical Modeling, and Water Quality Index

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Department of Landscape Protection and Environmental Geography, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
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Laboratory of Geology and Environment (LGE), Université Frères Mentouri Constantine, Constantine 25020, Algeria
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Department of Natural and Life Sciences, Mohamed Boudiaf University, M’sila 28000, Algeria
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Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, University of Debrecen, 4023 Debrecen, Hungary
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Department of Computer Graphics and Image Processing, University of Debrecen, 4023 Debrecen, Hungary
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Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Don State Technical University, 344000 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jeonghoon Lee and Giehyeon Lee
Water 2021, 13(11), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111609
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Groundwater Geochemistry)
This research aims to assess the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater in Oued souf valley for drinking and irrigation purposes. To achieve this, 49 groundwater samples from the complex terminal were examined and treated concurrently with multivariate statistical methods, geostatistical modeling and the WQI (water quality index). Focusing on the physico-chemical parameters, Q mode clustering analysis detected four major water groups, where the mineralization augmented from group 1 to group 4. The hydro-chemical type was the same, Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 for all the groups. Calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, and gypsum would be the dominant reactions with the undersaturation of evaporates minerals, based on geochemical modeling, while the carbonate minerals are precipitating. Geostatistical analysis using ordinary Kriging demonstrated the exponential semi-variogram model fitted for EC (electrical conductivity), Ca2+ (calcium), Mg2+ (magnesium), K+ (potassium), HCO3 (bicarbonate), Cl (chloride), and SO42− (sulfate). At the same time, the rational quadratic model was the best-fitted semi-variogram model for Na+ (sodium) and NO3 (nitrate). EC, SO42−, and NO3 have a strong spatial structure, while Ca2+, Na+, K+, and HCO3 have a moderate spatial structure. Moreover, there was a weak spatial structure for Mg2+ and Cl. The WQI shows that CT (complex terminal groundwater aquifers) are not suitable for drinking and their quality for irrigation fluctuates from excellent to moderate quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex terminal aquifer; water–rock interaction; multivariate statistical methods; geostatistics; geochemical modeling; WQI complex terminal aquifer; water–rock interaction; multivariate statistical methods; geostatistics; geochemical modeling; WQI
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barkat, A.; Bouaicha, F.; Bouteraa, O.; Mester, T.; Ata, B.; Balla, D.; Rahal, Z.; Szabó, G. Assessment of Complex Terminal Groundwater Aquifer for Different Use of Oued Souf Valley (Algeria) Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Geostatistical Modeling, and Water Quality Index. Water 2021, 13, 1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111609

AMA Style

Barkat A, Bouaicha F, Bouteraa O, Mester T, Ata B, Balla D, Rahal Z, Szabó G. Assessment of Complex Terminal Groundwater Aquifer for Different Use of Oued Souf Valley (Algeria) Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Geostatistical Modeling, and Water Quality Index. Water. 2021; 13(11):1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barkat, Ayoub, Foued Bouaicha, Oualid Bouteraa, Tamás Mester, Behnam Ata, Dániel Balla, Zakaria Rahal, and György Szabó. 2021. "Assessment of Complex Terminal Groundwater Aquifer for Different Use of Oued Souf Valley (Algeria) Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Geostatistical Modeling, and Water Quality Index" Water 13, no. 11: 1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111609

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