Next Article in Journal
Multi-Objective Operation-Leakage Optimization and Calibration of Water Distribution Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Search Space Reduction for Genetic Algorithms Applied to Drainage Network Optimization Problems
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Meteorological Factors on Thermokarst Lake Changes in the Beilu River Basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China (2000–2016)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inclusion of Hydraulic Controls in Rehabilitation Models of Drainage Networks to Control Floods
Article

Hydraulic and Technological Investigations of a Phenomenon Responsible for Increase of Major Head Losses in Exploited Cast-Iron Water Supply Pipes

1
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pedro L. Iglesias Rey
Water 2021, 13(11), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111604
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 6 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Calculation)
The paper presents results of investigations of influence of major head losses on exploitation properties of water supply pipes after 30-year exploitation. The tested materials were cast-iron pipes with the internal diameter of 150 mm. A flowability drop coefficient ηt with average value of 0.45 was determined. Using the measured values of pressure difference Δp determined the absolute roughness of internal walls of the pipes after 30-year exploitation, which was referred to the new pipelines. The absolute roughness for the exploited pipes was equal to k = 27.6 mm, whereas for the new ones it was significantly lower and equal to k = 0.9 mm. Additionally, an analysis of the chemical and mineral composition of sediments gathered in the investigated pipelines was also performed. The top layer of the sediments was dominated by the compounds of a character of the iron hydroxide: goethite (α-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), whereas the internal layer was supplemented by the gypsum and sulfur, which was proven by the investigations performed with the use of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sediment gathered within the pipes is the main reason of ca. 30-fold increase of the absolute roughness, which resulted in the flowability drop of the exploited water supply pipes. View Full-Text
Keywords: water supply network pipes; cast-iron pipes; major head losses; corrosion; absolute roughness; relative roughness; XRD; SEM water supply network pipes; cast-iron pipes; major head losses; corrosion; absolute roughness; relative roughness; XRD; SEM
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Wichowski, P.; Kalenik, M.; Lal, A.; Morawski, D.; Chalecki, M. Hydraulic and Technological Investigations of a Phenomenon Responsible for Increase of Major Head Losses in Exploited Cast-Iron Water Supply Pipes. Water 2021, 13, 1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111604

AMA Style

Wichowski P, Kalenik M, Lal A, Morawski D, Chalecki M. Hydraulic and Technological Investigations of a Phenomenon Responsible for Increase of Major Head Losses in Exploited Cast-Iron Water Supply Pipes. Water. 2021; 13(11):1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111604

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wichowski, Piotr, Marek Kalenik, Agnieszka Lal, Dariusz Morawski, and Marek Chalecki. 2021. "Hydraulic and Technological Investigations of a Phenomenon Responsible for Increase of Major Head Losses in Exploited Cast-Iron Water Supply Pipes" Water 13, no. 11: 1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111604

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop