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Article

Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flow in a Strongly Curved Channel with Gravel Beds

by 1,2,3, 2, 4,* and 5
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
2
Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
3
The Engineering Research Center of Oceanic Sensing Technology and Equipment, Ministry of Education, Zhoushan 316021, China
4
Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
5
China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mouldi BEN MEFTAH
Water 2021, 13(11), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111519
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
This study experimentally and numerically investigated the hydrodynamic characteristics of a 180° curved open channel over rough bed under the condition of constant downstream water depth. Three different sizes of bed particles (the small, middle and big cases based upon the grain size diameter D50) were selected for flume tests. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocities obtained by the acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) were used to analyze hydrodynamic characteristics. Additionally, the Renormalization-Group (RNG) turbulence model was employed for numerical simulations. Experimental results show that rough bed strengthens turbulence and increases turbulent kinetic energy along curved channels. The power spectra of the longitudinal velocity fluctuation satisfy the classic Kolmogorov −5/3 law in the inertial subrange, and the existence of rough bed shortens the inertial subrange and causes the flow reach the viscous dissipation range in advance. The contributions of sweeps and ejections are more important than those of the outward and inward interactions over a rough bed for the middle case. Flow-3D was adopted to simulate flow patterns on two rough bed settings with same surface roughness (skin drag) but different bed shapes (form drag): one is bed covered with thick bottom sediment layers along the curved part of the flume (the big case) as the experimental condition, and the other one is uniform bed along the entire flume (called the big case_flat only for simulations). Numerical simulations reveal that the secondary flow is confined to the near-bed area and the intensity of secondary flow is improved for both rough bed cases, possibly causing more serious bed erosion along a curved channel. In addition, the thick bottom sediments (the big case), i.e., larger form drag, can enhance turbulence strength near bed regions, enlarge the transverse range of secondary flow, and delay the shifting of the core region of maximum longitudinal velocity towards the concave bank. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic Doppler velocimeter; rough bed; secondary flow; turbulent bursting; turbulence kinetic energy acoustic Doppler velocimeter; rough bed; secondary flow; turbulent bursting; turbulence kinetic energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, Y.-T.; Yang, Y.; Chiu, Y.-J.; Ji, X. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flow in a Strongly Curved Channel with Gravel Beds. Water 2021, 13, 1519. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111519

AMA Style

Lin Y-T, Yang Y, Chiu Y-J, Ji X. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flow in a Strongly Curved Channel with Gravel Beds. Water. 2021; 13(11):1519. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Ying-Tien, Yu Yang, Yu-Jia Chiu, and Xiaoyan Ji. 2021. "Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flow in a Strongly Curved Channel with Gravel Beds" Water 13, no. 11: 1519. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111519

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