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Article

Simulating Water and Pollution Exports from Soil to Stream during the Thawing Period at the Small River Basin Scale

1
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(11), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111506
Received: 17 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
A physical model was developed to describe the soil-to-stream export processes of water and pollutants in a small river basin during the soil thawing period. The hydrological and pollution transport and transformation behaviors in paddy- and corn-dominated catchments were numerically simulated; the impacts of the pollution concentrations, interactions between the migrated water and pollutants in the soil, and pollutant transformations during the pollution export were coupled. Experimental field data from the Heidingzi river basin during the soil thawing period were used to calibrate the model parameters and evaluate the performance. The mass of the dissolved pollutants from soil particles in the migrated soil pore water was the key factor affecting the pollution export into the streams; the water content directly affected the pollution export. The concentration of the pollutants peaked when the initial exported water was high. The pollutant transport processes influenced the pollution export more significantly after the soil water was significantly reduced. The N-S efficiency coefficients between the simulated and monitored flow rates and the pollution concentrations at the outlets of the paddy- and corn-dominated catchments were >0.60 and >0.54, respectively. The system deviations between the simulated and monitored flow rates and the pollution concentrations were <10% and <15%, respectively. The proposed model effectively described the water flow, pollution transport and transformation processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: frozen soil; pollution exported from oil into stream; pollution transport and transformation; numerical simulation frozen soil; pollution exported from oil into stream; pollution transport and transformation; numerical simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, P.; Wang, K.; Zhou, Z. Simulating Water and Pollution Exports from Soil to Stream during the Thawing Period at the Small River Basin Scale. Water 2021, 13, 1506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111506

AMA Style

Wang P, Wang K, Zhou Z. Simulating Water and Pollution Exports from Soil to Stream during the Thawing Period at the Small River Basin Scale. Water. 2021; 13(11):1506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Pengxiang, Kang Wang, and Zuhao Zhou. 2021. "Simulating Water and Pollution Exports from Soil to Stream during the Thawing Period at the Small River Basin Scale" Water 13, no. 11: 1506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111506

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