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Article

Coastal Evolution in a Wetland Affected by Large Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in South-Central Chile: Criteria for Integrated Coastal Management

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Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
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Centro de Investigación Para la Gestión Integrada de Desastres Naturales (CIGIDEN), ANID/FONDAP/15110017, Santiago 7820436, Chile
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ANID–Millennium Science Initiative Program—Instituto Milenio en Socio-ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago 8331150, Chile
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Programa de Doctorado en Geografía, Instituto de Geografía, Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
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Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Ribera 2850, San Andrés, Concepción 4090541, Chile
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Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA-Chile, Departamento de Planificación Territorial y Sistemas Urbanos, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4089100, Chile
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School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bristol, 93-95, Woodland Road, Office 5.4, Bristol BS8 1US, UK
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Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territorial y Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable CEDEUS, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Providencia 7500000, Chile
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Federica Rizzetto
Water 2021, 13(11), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111467
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geological and Geomorphological Studies in Coastal Areas)
The coastal evolution of the microtidal Tubul-Raqui wetland in south-central Chile (36° S), which historically has been affected by large earthquakes and tsunamis, particularly the 1960 (Mw = 9.5) and 2010 (Mw = 8.8) subduction earthquakes and their associated tsunamis, is analyzed. Historical aerial photographs and topographic and bathymetric surveys from the 1961–2017 period, as well as salinity, sediment, and flora data obtained following the 2010 earthquake were used for comparison with data from prior to the event. A steady state of the shoreline was established, with an average erosion rate of −0.016 m/year in the 1961–2017 period. However, erosion predominated in the period between these two large earthquakes (1961–2009), with an average rate of −0.386 m/year. The wetland dried up, partially recovered saline intrusion a year later, and recovered the salinity conditions it had before the earthquake two years later. The postearthquake effects on the floristic composition were not significant, with the species Spartina densiflora, which presented a high tolerance to these types of changes, predominating. Moreover, 75 percent of the taxa in pre- and postearthquake conditions coincided, with the halophyte species Spartina densiflora, Sarcocornia fructicosa, and Cotula coronopifolia predominating, while the best-conserved community was Spartina-Sarcocornia association located in the saltmarsh. Seven years after the earthquake, the shoreline presented an accretion rate of 2.935 m/year; if the current tectonic conditions prevail, an erosive trend can be expected in the coming decades. The morphological variability and the changes associated with the shoreline in this wetland are strongly controlled by tectonic factors. Criteria aimed at integrated coastal management to promote its occupancy and use in accordance with its evolutionary dynamics are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal evolution; geomorphological change; wetland; earthquakes; coastal management coastal evolution; geomorphological change; wetland; earthquakes; coastal management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, C.; Sepúlveda-Zúñiga, E.; Villagrán, M.; Rojas, O.; Gómez, M.; López, P.; Rojas, C. Coastal Evolution in a Wetland Affected by Large Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in South-Central Chile: Criteria for Integrated Coastal Management. Water 2021, 13, 1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111467

AMA Style

Martínez C, Sepúlveda-Zúñiga E, Villagrán M, Rojas O, Gómez M, López P, Rojas C. Coastal Evolution in a Wetland Affected by Large Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in South-Central Chile: Criteria for Integrated Coastal Management. Water. 2021; 13(11):1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez, Carolina, Einer Sepúlveda-Zúñiga, Mauricio Villagrán, Octavio Rojas, Matías Gómez, Pablo López, and Carolina Rojas. 2021. "Coastal Evolution in a Wetland Affected by Large Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in South-Central Chile: Criteria for Integrated Coastal Management" Water 13, no. 11: 1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111467

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