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Article

Exploring the Use of a Sanitation Safety Plan Framework to Identify Key Hazards in First Nations Wastewater Systems

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Campus, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
2
Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Caetano C. Dorea
Water 2021, 13(11), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111454
Received: 5 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
First Nations communities in Canada have a documented history of sub-standard water quality. While efforts have been made to address drinking water quality, little has been done to address longstanding challenges in wastewater systems. This study developed a hazard identification checklist using a sanitation safety plan (SSP) framework to characterize potential hazards in 29 First Nations wastewater systems in Atlantic Canada. System types included in this study included centralized, decentralized, and municipal transfer agreements (MTAs). Using past system assessment reports, potential hazardous events were evaluated along the sanitation chain to assess risk within systems. Overall, 69% of hazardous events had an unknown level of risk while 7% were high-risk. This research found that decentralized systems and MTAs have poorly characterized risk due to a lack of documentation and communication. The presence of significant knowledge deficits and high-risk hazards in centralized systems cause risk propagation and accumulation along the sanitation chain, resulting in potential effluent quality concerns. This desktop study demonstrates that an SSP approach offers an alternative assessment process to the regulatory approach currently being used by proposing an enhanced systemic understanding of risk that can inform management practices and integrate the plurality of stakeholders involved in these systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: sanitation safety planning; hazard; wastewater management; sanitation management; operational risk sanitation safety planning; hazard; wastewater management; sanitation management; operational risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lane, K.; Fuller, M.; Stanhope, T.; Stoddart, A. Exploring the Use of a Sanitation Safety Plan Framework to Identify Key Hazards in First Nations Wastewater Systems. Water 2021, 13, 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111454

AMA Style

Lane K, Fuller M, Stanhope T, Stoddart A. Exploring the Use of a Sanitation Safety Plan Framework to Identify Key Hazards in First Nations Wastewater Systems. Water. 2021; 13(11):1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lane, Kaycie, Megan Fuller, Toni Stanhope, and Amina Stoddart. 2021. "Exploring the Use of a Sanitation Safety Plan Framework to Identify Key Hazards in First Nations Wastewater Systems" Water 13, no. 11: 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111454

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