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Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: An Overview on Their Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment and Human Exposure
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Probiotics in Fish Nutrition—Long-Standing Household Remedy or Native Nutraceuticals?

1
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Biometry and Environmental Systems Analysis, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
3
Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt University Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin B. Strychar
Water 2021, 13(10), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101348
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
Over the last decades, aquaculture production increased rapidly. The future development of the industry highly relies on the sustainable utilization of natural resources. The need for improving disease resistance, growth performance, food conversion, and product safety for human consumption has stimulated the application of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics increase growth and feed conversion, improve health status, raise disease resistance, decrease stress susceptibility, and improve general vigor. Currently, most probiotics still originate from terrestrial sources rather than fish. However, host-associated (autochthonous) probiotics are likely more persistent in the gastrointestinal tract of fish and may, therefore, exhibit longer-lasting effects on the host. Probiotic candidates are commonly screened in in vitro assays, but the transfer to in vivo assessment is often problematic. In conclusion, modulation of the host-associated microbiome by the use of complex probiotics is promising, but a solid understanding of the interactions involved is only in its infancy and requires further research. Probiotics could be used to explore novel ingredients such as chitin-rich insect meal, which cannot be digested by the fish host alone. Most importantly, probiotics offer the opportunity to improve stress and disease resistance, which is among the most pressing problems in aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; aquaculture; microbiome; living gut; species-specific bacteria; mode-of-action probiotics; aquaculture; microbiome; living gut; species-specific bacteria; mode-of-action
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wuertz, S.; Schroeder, A.; Wanka, K.M. Probiotics in Fish Nutrition—Long-Standing Household Remedy or Native Nutraceuticals? Water 2021, 13, 1348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101348

AMA Style

Wuertz S, Schroeder A, Wanka KM. Probiotics in Fish Nutrition—Long-Standing Household Remedy or Native Nutraceuticals? Water. 2021; 13(10):1348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101348

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wuertz, Sven, Arne Schroeder, and Konrad M. Wanka 2021. "Probiotics in Fish Nutrition—Long-Standing Household Remedy or Native Nutraceuticals?" Water 13, no. 10: 1348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101348

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