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Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: An Overview on Their Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment and Human Exposure

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Department of Medicine Surgery and Dentistry, Scuola Medica Salernitana, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Italy
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ISPRA, Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Via Vitaliano Brancati 60, 00144 Rome, Italy
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Andrology Unit and Service of Lifestyle Medicine in Uro-Andrology, Local Health Authority (ASL) Salerno, Coordination Unit of the Network for Environmental and Reproductive Health (EcoFoodFertility Project), Italy “Oliveto Citra Hospital”, Via M. Clemente, 84020 Oliveto Citra, Italy
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Department of Biology, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper as first authors.
Academic Editors: Heiko L. Schoenfuss and Anu Kumar
Water 2021, 13(10), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101347
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) as emerging contaminants have accumulated in the aquatic environment at concentration levels that have been determined to be significant to humans and animals. Several compounds belong to this family, from natural substances (hormones such as estrone, 17-estradiol, and estriol) to synthetic chemicals, especially pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and plastic-derived compounds (phthalates, bisphenol A). In this review, we discuss recent works regarding EDC occurrence in the aquatic compartment, strengths and limitations of current analytical methods used for their detection, treatment technologies for their removal from water, and the health issues that they can trigger in humans. Nowadays, many EDCs have been identified in significant amounts in different water matrices including drinking water, thus increasing the possibility of entering the food chain. Several studies correlate human exposure to high concentrations of EDCs with serious effects such as infertility, thyroid dysfunction, early puberty, endometriosis, diabetes, and obesity. Although our intention is not to explain all disorders related to EDCs exposure, this review aims to guide future research towards a deeper knowledge of EDCs’ contamination and accumulation in water, highlighting their toxicity and exposure risks to humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging contaminants; organic contaminants; endocrine disruptor; water environment emerging contaminants; organic contaminants; endocrine disruptor; water environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pironti, C.; Ricciardi, M.; Proto, A.; Bianco, P.M.; Montano, L.; Motta, O. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: An Overview on Their Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment and Human Exposure. Water 2021, 13, 1347. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101347

AMA Style

Pironti C, Ricciardi M, Proto A, Bianco PM, Montano L, Motta O. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: An Overview on Their Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment and Human Exposure. Water. 2021; 13(10):1347. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101347

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pironti, Concetta, Maria Ricciardi, Antonio Proto, Pietro M. Bianco, Luigi Montano, and Oriana Motta. 2021. "Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: An Overview on Their Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment and Human Exposure" Water 13, no. 10: 1347. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101347

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