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Article

Additive Effects of Sediment and Nutrient on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Macroinvertebrates in Hyporheic Zone

1
Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
2
Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela Boggero
Water 2021, 13(10), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101340
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 4 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endangered Freshwater Ecosystems: Threats and Conservation Needs)
Despite the fact that leaf decomposition constitutes an important function in rivers, how multiple environmental stressors simultaneously affect it remains largely unknown. This study investigated the interactive effects of fine sediments (particle size: <2 mm; experimentally manipulated) and a specific nutrient (i.e., nitrate) on subsurface (hyporheic) leaf litter decomposition rate and macroinvertebrates in a gravel-bed river and its tributary in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. The experiment was conducted by measuring leaf litter decomposition of dried Alnus japonica leaves (3 ± 0.05 g) in benthic and hyporheic zones with and without sediment treatments at four sites that had a gradient of nitrate concentration. The decomposition rate was comparable between the two zones but was slowed down by sediment addition in the hyporheic zone. The functional responses were highly predictable for the individual stressors. Detritivore invertebrates were the main driving component of decomposition in the decreased leaf litter decomposition rate under a higher fine sediment condition, whereas higher nitrate accelerated the leaf litter decomposition rate by stimulated microbe-driven decomposition as well as detritivore feeding. Overall, the negative effect of fine sediment could be offset in the presence of nitrate while considering gross functional responses. We demonstrated the additive effects of fine sediment and nitrate on leaf litter decomposition in the hyporheic zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: detritivores; ecosystem function; gravel-bed river; manipulation; multiple stressors detritivores; ecosystem function; gravel-bed river; manipulation; multiple stressors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alam, M.K.; Negishi, J.N.; Pongsivapai, P.; Yamashita, S.; Nakagawa, T. Additive Effects of Sediment and Nutrient on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Macroinvertebrates in Hyporheic Zone. Water 2021, 13, 1340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101340

AMA Style

Alam MK, Negishi JN, Pongsivapai P, Yamashita S, Nakagawa T. Additive Effects of Sediment and Nutrient on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Macroinvertebrates in Hyporheic Zone. Water. 2021; 13(10):1340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alam, Md. K., Junjiro N. Negishi, Pongpet Pongsivapai, Shohei Yamashita, and Tomohiro Nakagawa. 2021. "Additive Effects of Sediment and Nutrient on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Macroinvertebrates in Hyporheic Zone" Water 13, no. 10: 1340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101340

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