Analysis of the Water Level Variation in the Polish Part of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and Estimation of Water Inflow and Outflow Transport through the Strait of Baltiysk in the Years 2008–2017
- a statistical analysis of the water level variation at Tolkmicko station to identify the factors of water damming in the southern part (Polish) of the Vistula Lagoon (the measurements of the water stages in the lagoon and in the Gulf of Gdańsk, as well as wind observations at Nowa Pasłęka meteorological station were used for this research),
- a validation of the shallow water equations model  adopted to simulate the hydrodynamics of the lagoon over a long period of time (the water stage field measurements from Tolkmicko were used for comparison with the calculations),
- a computational estimation of the marine water transport between the Baltic Sea and the Vistula Lagoon (a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics of the Vistula Lagoon was carried out for the period 2008–2017).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Hydro-Meteorological and Bathymetric Data
2.3. Statistical Method
2.4. Mathematical Model
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Variability of the Vistula Lagoon Water Levels (WSE) at Tolkmicko
3.2. Validation of the Hydrodynamic Model for the 10-Year-Long Simulation Period
3.3. Water Transport through the Strait of Baltiysk
- The Vistula Lagoon 2D hydrodynamic model was verified and the simulation results were validated using water stage elevation measurements at Tolkmicko control point. Although the results obtained for the years 2008–2017 are slightly understated in relation to the observations, the calculations should be considered reliable, which was confirmed by statistical measures.
- The application of the validated hydrodynamic model enabled calculations of the flow through the Strait of Baltiysk. The calculated discharges in the strait provided the data to estimate the total accumulative inflow and outflow of seawater entering and leaving the lagoon, respectively.
- The average annual marine water inflow into the Vistula Lagoon between 2008 and 2017 was calculated to be equal to 15.87 km3. The minimum and maximum total inflows were estimated as 14.31 km3 and 17.78 km3, respectively. These values, although different, are consistent with the data given in historical sources and can be used to update the hydrological balance of the waters of the Vistula Lagoon.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Annual accumulative inflow (km3)||17.78||15.40||15.76||16.23||16.35||15.42||14.31||16.50||15.18||15.73||15.87|
|Annual accumulative outflow (km3)||17.60||15.66||15.68||15.95||15.97||15.57||14.43||16.75||15.38||15.94||15.89|
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Szydłowski, M.; Artichowicz, W.; Zima, P. Analysis of the Water Level Variation in the Polish Part of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and Estimation of Water Inflow and Outflow Transport through the Strait of Baltiysk in the Years 2008–2017. Water 2021, 13, 1328. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101328
Szydłowski M, Artichowicz W, Zima P. Analysis of the Water Level Variation in the Polish Part of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and Estimation of Water Inflow and Outflow Transport through the Strait of Baltiysk in the Years 2008–2017. Water. 2021; 13(10):1328. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101328Chicago/Turabian Style
Szydłowski, Michał, Wojciech Artichowicz, and Piotr Zima. 2021. "Analysis of the Water Level Variation in the Polish Part of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea) and Estimation of Water Inflow and Outflow Transport through the Strait of Baltiysk in the Years 2008–2017" Water 13, no. 10: 1328. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101328