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Open AccessArticle

Mass and Heat Balance of a Lake Ice Cover in the Central Asian Arid Climate Zone

1
State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
2
Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
4
Institute of Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
5
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lammi Biological Station, University of Helsinki, 16900 Lammi, Finland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102888
Received: 23 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
To improve the understanding of the seasonal evolution of the mass and heat budget of ice-covered lakes in the cold and arid climate zone, in-situ observations were collected during two winters (2016–2017 and 2017–2018) in Lake Wuliangsuhai, Inner Mongolia, China. The mean snow thickness was 5.2 and 1.6 cm in these winters, due to low winter precipitation. The mean ice thickness was 50.9 and 36.1 cm, and the ice growth rate was 3.6 and 2.1 mm day−1 at the lower boundary of ice. Analyses of mass and heat balance data from two winters revealed that the surface heat budget was governed by solar radiation and terrestrial radiation. The net heat flux loss of the ice was 9–22 W m−2, affected by the snow and ice thickness. Compared to boreal lakes, Lake Wuliangsuhai received more solar radiation and heat flux from the water. The ice temperature had a strong diurnal variation, which was produced by the diurnal cycles of solar radiation, and air and water temperatures. These results expand our knowledge of the evolution of mass and heat balance in temperate lakes of mid-latitude arid areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass balance; heat budget; lake ice; snow mass balance; heat budget; lake ice; snow
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.4040839
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4040839
    Description: The data of the manuscript "Mass and heat balance of a lake ice cover in the Central Asian arid climate zone".
MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, P.; Cao, X.; Li, G.; Huang, W.; Leppäranta, M.; Arvola, L.; Huotari, J.; Li, Z. Mass and Heat Balance of a Lake Ice Cover in the Central Asian Arid Climate Zone. Water 2020, 12, 2888.

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