Next Article in Journal
Drought in the Upper Hron Region (Slovakia) between the Years 1984–2014
Previous Article in Journal
Comprehensive Assessment of Water Sensitive Urban Design Practices based on Multi-criteria Decision Analysis via a Case Study of the University of Melbourne, Australia
Open AccessArticle

Decadal Spatiotemporal Halocline Analysis by ISAS15 Due to Influx of Major Rivers in Oceans and Discrepancies Illustrated Near the Bay of Bengal

by 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Acoustic Science and Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
2
College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102886
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 1 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
The discharge from rivers is one of the major factors of regional salinity perturbations in addition to precipitation, evaporation, and circulation of the ocean, whereas simulations regarding the marine environment are dominantly affected by ocean salinity. Moreover, perturbations in the timing and quantity of freshwater cause salinity fluctuations, which in turn, affect the communities of both plant and fauna. In this regard, the study ingeniously employs In Situ Analysis System-15 (ISAS15) data, which is freely available online, to ascertain the salinities in proximity of the major rivers around the globe. Such computations are multilayered, i.e., for 1, 3, 5, and 10 m, and conducted along major freshwater influxes, i.e., the Amazon River, Bay of Bengal (BoB), and Yangtze River, on decadal scales, i.e., in 2004 and in 2014. Depending upon the location and availability of ISAS-15 data, the area in proximity of the Amazon is analyzed horizontally, vertically, and obliquely, whereas the areas in proximity of the BoB and Yangtze estuary are analyzed vertically and obliquely. Similarly, the study analyzed the freshwater influx at the aforementioned locations both for the maxima and minima, i.e., during the particular months that observed the maximum and minimum influx into the ocean from the above-mentioned freshwater sources in 2004, as well as in 2014. The detailed analysis proved the outcomes to be conforming with the documented literary data along the Amazon and Yangtze estuaries. However, the computed analysis illustrated the anomalous values in proximity of the BoB. The study proceeds to discuss an ingenious approach of computing, as well as extrapolating, the salinities, temperatures, and sound speed profiles (SSPs) by employing in situ deep Argo data in order to counter such anomalies, as well as conjoin it with ISAS data, to investigate such regions with broader spatiotemporal capabilities for the future course of action. For this particular study, this method is employed on certain Argo buoys in order to prove the efficacy of the aforementioned novel approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: ISAS-15; haloclines; decadal analysis; extrapolations; rectifications ISAS-15; haloclines; decadal analysis; extrapolations; rectifications
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Iqbal, K.; Piao, S.; Zhang, M. Decadal Spatiotemporal Halocline Analysis by ISAS15 Due to Influx of Major Rivers in Oceans and Discrepancies Illustrated Near the Bay of Bengal. Water 2020, 12, 2886.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop