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Open AccessArticle

Acetaminophen Removal from Water by Microalgae and Effluent Toxicity Assessment by the Zebrafish Embryo Bioassay

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IMARENABIO-Institute of Environment, Natural Resources and Biodiversity, Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, Universidad de León, Av. Portugal s/n, 24071 León, Spain
2
CIMAR/CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Endocrine Disruptors and Emerging Contaminants Group, University of Porto, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
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Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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FCUP-Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091929
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 15 September 2019
In this work, zebrafish embryo bioassays were performed to assess the efficiency of microalgae in the removal of acetaminophen from water. Chlorella sorokiniana (CS), Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Scenedesmus obliquus (SO) were the strains used for water treatment. Toxic effects on zebrafish embryo caused by effluents from microalgae treatment were compared with those observed under exposure to experimental solutions with known concentrations of acetaminophen. The three microalgae strains allowed for the reduction of acetaminophen concentration and its toxic effects, but CS was the most efficient one. At the end of the batch culture, a 67% removal was provided by CS with a reduction of 62% in the total abnormalities on the exposed zebrafish embryo. On the other hand, toxic effects observed under exposure to effluents treated by microalgae were alike to those determined for acetaminophen experimental solutions with equivalent concentration. Thus, it may be inferred that microalgae biodegradation of acetaminophen did not involve an increased toxicity for zebrafish embryo. View Full-Text
Keywords: phyco-remediation; algae; wastewater; emerging contaminants; paracetamol; Danio rerio phyco-remediation; algae; wastewater; emerging contaminants; paracetamol; Danio rerio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Escapa, C.; Coimbra, R.N.; Neuparth, T.; Torres, T.; Santos, M.M.; Otero, M. Acetaminophen Removal from Water by Microalgae and Effluent Toxicity Assessment by the Zebrafish Embryo Bioassay. Water 2019, 11, 1929.

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