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Open AccessArticle

Microclimate Variation and Estimated Heat Stress of Runners in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon

1
Department of Urban Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
2
Climate, Atmospheric Science & Physical Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
4
Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050192
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Design and City Microclimates)
The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games will be held in July and August. As these are the hottest months in Tokyo, the risk of heat stress to athletes and spectators in outdoor sporting events is a serious concern. This study focuses on the marathon races, which are held outside for a prolonged time, and evaluates the potential heat stress of marathon runners using the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) Human Heat Balance (HBB) Model. The study applies a four-step procedure: (a) measure the thermal environment along the marathon course; (b) estimate heat stress on runners by applying COMFA; (c) identify locations where runners may be exposed to extreme heat stress; and (d) discuss measures to mitigate the heat stress on runners. On clear sunny days, the entire course is rated as ‘dangerous’ or ‘extremely dangerous’, and within the latter half of the course, there is a 10-km portion where values continuously exceed the extremely dangerous level. Findings illustrate which stretches have the highest need for mitigation measures, such as starting the race one hour earlier, allowing runners to run in the shade of buildings or making use of urban greenery including expanding the tree canopy. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban microclimate; heat stress; COMFA Human Heat Balance Model; Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games; marathon games urban microclimate; heat stress; COMFA Human Heat Balance Model; Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games; marathon games
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Kosaka, E.; Iida, A.; Vanos, J.; Middel, A.; Yokohari, M.; Brown, R. Microclimate Variation and Estimated Heat Stress of Runners in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 192.

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