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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Raindrop Size Distribution on Throughfall Dynamics under Pine and Birch Trees at the Rainfall Event Level

1
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2017, 8(12), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8120240
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
Part of precipitation is intercepted by forest canopies, while the rest reaches the ground as throughfall or stemflow. This process is influenced by various meteorological variables, of which we have mainly focused on drop diameter and velocity. Rainfall in the open and throughfall under birch and pine trees have both been measured since 2014 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The results demonstrate that the total throughfall during 3.5 years was 73% and 53% of rainfall under birch and pine trees, respectively. During the 236 analysed events, the median volume diameter was 1.8 mm (±1.7 mm), and kinetic energy between 0.01 mJ/cm2 and 23.3 mJ/cm2 was recorded. We closely analysed the effect of rainfall microstructure on throughfall under pine and birch trees during three specific rainfall events. The increase in drop diameter and fall velocity during a rainfall event instantaneously increased throughfall under pine trees between 25% and 47%, whereas no such changes were observed under birch trees. This may be the consequence of different tree properties of the two species. Additionally, in the case of a saturated canopy, throughfall under pine trees exceeded rainfall in the open after an onset of larger and faster drops. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall; rainfall interception; throughfall; raindrop size distribution; drop velocity; birch; pine; Slovenia rainfall; rainfall interception; throughfall; raindrop size distribution; drop velocity; birch; pine; Slovenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zabret, K.; Rakovec, J.; Mikoš, M.; Šraj, M. Influence of Raindrop Size Distribution on Throughfall Dynamics under Pine and Birch Trees at the Rainfall Event Level. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 240.

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