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Article

Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite

1
Jiangxi Earthquake Agency, Nanchang 330096, China
2
Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100036, China
3
Sichuan Earthquake Agency, Chengdu 610041, China
4
Liaoning Earthquake Agency, Shenyang 110034, China
5
Electronic Information School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Victor Ivanovich Zakharov
Atmosphere 2022, 13(9), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091523
Received: 11 August 2022 / Revised: 13 September 2022 / Accepted: 15 September 2022 / Published: 18 September 2022
In this paper, we focused on the characteristics of the seismo-ionospheric effects related to two successive earthquakes, namely, the earthquakes in 2022 in Taitung Sea, Taiwan, China, with magnitudes (M) of 6.7 and 6.3, at 23.45° N, 121.55° E and 23.39° N, 121.52° E and with the same focal depth of 20 km, which were detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES). By applying the sliding interquartile range method to electron density (Ne) data acquired by the Langmuir probe (LAP) onboard the CSES and the grid total electron content (TEC) data obtained from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), positive anomalies were found under quiet geomagnetic conditions on 2–3 March and 8–9 March 2022—that is, 19–20 and 13–14 d before the earthquakes, respectively, and the global ionospheric mapping (GIM) TEC data suggested that anomalies may also have been triggered in the magnetic conjugate area 13–14 d prior to the earthquakes occurrences. In addition, the CSES Ne data showed enhancements 3 and 5 d before the earthquakes occurred. Furthermore, 138 earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 that occurred in Taiwan and the surrounding region during the period February 2019 to March 2022 were statistically analyzed using the CSES Ne data. The results show that most of the Ne anomalies were positive. Moreover, the greater the earthquake magnitude, the greater the frequency of the anomalies; however, the amplitude of the anomalies did not increase with the earthquake magnitude. The anomalies were concentrated during the period of 10 d before to 5 d after the earthquakes. No increase in the amplitude of anomalies was observed as the time of the earthquakes approached. Finally, based on evidence relating to earthquake precursor anomalies, we conclude that it is possible that earthquakes in Taiwan and the surrounding region affect the ionosphere through the geochemical, acoustic, and electromagnetic channels, as described by the lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling (LAIC) model, and that the two studied earthquakes in Taiwan may have induced ionospheric effects through the geochemical channel. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismo-ionospheric effects; CSES; electron density; sphere-coupling mechanism seismo-ionospheric effects; CSES; electron density; sphere-coupling mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, X.; Du, X.; Lü, J.; Xiao, J. Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 1523. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091523

AMA Style

Guo Y, Zhang X, Liu J, Yang M, Yang X, Du X, Lü J, Xiao J. Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(9):1523. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Yufan, Xuemin Zhang, Jiang Liu, Muping Yang, Xing Yang, Xiaohui Du, Jian Lü, and Jian Xiao. 2022. "Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite" Atmosphere 13, no. 9: 1523. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091523

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