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Open AccessPerspective

How Does Protein Zero Assemble Compact Myelin?

by 1,* and 1,2
1
Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, NO-5009 Bergen, Norway
2
Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine & Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Aapistie 7A, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(8), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081832
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Schwann Cells: From Formation to Clinical Significance)
Myelin protein zero (P0), a type I transmembrane protein, is the most abundant protein in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin—the lipid-rich, periodic structure of membrane pairs that concentrically encloses long axonal segments. Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, express P0 throughout their development until the formation of mature myelin. In the intramyelinic compartment, the immunoglobulin-like domain of P0 bridges apposing membranes via homophilic adhesion, forming, as revealed by electron microscopy, the electron-dense, double “intraperiod line” that is split by a narrow, electron-lucent space corresponding to the extracellular space between membrane pairs. The C-terminal tail of P0 adheres apposing membranes together in the narrow cytoplasmic compartment of compact myelin, much like myelin basic protein (MBP). In mouse models, the absence of P0, unlike that of MBP or P2, severely disturbs myelination. Therefore, P0 is the executive molecule of PNS myelin maturation. How and when P0 is trafficked and modified to enable myelin compaction, and how mutations that give rise to incurable peripheral neuropathies alter the function of P0, are currently open questions. The potential mechanisms of P0 function in myelination are discussed, providing a foundation for the understanding of mature myelin development and how it derails in peripheral neuropathies. View Full-Text
Keywords: myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raasakka, A.; Kursula, P. How Does Protein Zero Assemble Compact Myelin? Cells 2020, 9, 1832. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081832

AMA Style

Raasakka A, Kursula P. How Does Protein Zero Assemble Compact Myelin? Cells. 2020; 9(8):1832. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081832

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raasakka, Arne; Kursula, Petri. 2020. "How Does Protein Zero Assemble Compact Myelin?" Cells 9, no. 8: 1832. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081832

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