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Agronomy 2018, 8(12), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8120286

Dynamics of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium perenne: Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow under Field Conditions in Argentina

1
National Scientific and Technical Research Council—CONICET, Laboratorio de Biotecnología y Genética Vegetal, Chacra Experimental Integrada Barrow (MAIBA—INTA), RN 3 km 487, Tres Arroyos CP 7500, Argentina
2
Chacra Experimental Integrada Barrow (MAIBA—INTA), RN 3 km 487, Tres Arroyos CP 7500, Argentina
3
College of Agronomy and Forestry, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 60 y 119, La Plata CP 1900, Argentina
4
National Scientific and Technical Research Council—CONICET, College of Agronomy and Forestry, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 60 y 119, La Plata CP 1900, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Weed Science and Weed Management)
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Abstract

The genus Lolium has shown a high tendency to evolve resistance to herbicides. Considering the high level of allogamy of L. perenne and the importance of the wind as an agent for pollen dispersion, the aim of this work was to assess and quantify the effective glyphosate-resistant gene flow by pollen in L. perenne under field conditions. Pollen-mediated gene flow from glyphosate-resistant to -susceptible plants was studied using a donor–receptor design. The results indicate that the effective gene flow reached trap plants distanced ≤35 m downwind from the source of pollen. The progeny of receptor plants growing 0 m from the pollen donors showed 13% of individuals with low glyphosate sensitivity. This represents a seven-fold increase in the frequency of glyphosate-resistant individuals found in the progeny of plants isolated during the flowering period (negative control). Similarly, the progenies of plants grown at 15 and 25 m from the source of glyphosate resistance showed an increase in the frequency of resistant plants by about four- and two-fold, respectively. When the receptor plants were located at >35 m, no glyphosate-resistant plants were detected in their progenies. Management should aim for prevention or delay of flowering of glyphosate-resistant plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: ryegrass; flowering; weed; cross-pollination ryegrass; flowering; weed; cross-pollination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yanniccari, M.; Istilart, C.; Giménez, D.; Castro, A. Dynamics of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium perenne: Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow under Field Conditions in Argentina. Agronomy 2018, 8, 286.

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